The Ashtanga Key - Surya Namaskara

The Ashtanga Key - Surya Namaskar 


Update (13/10/15) from research by Christopher Tompkins

"The Yogin should recite the mantra, while Dancing through the poses of the Namaskāra. He raises his arms in the air, takes Anjali mudra, descending towards the earth, he forms the shape of a staff; he should (both) come to the earth, and arise again [from it] in the way natural to a DOG. Having made his offering, he arises from the Āsana moving to the next direction around the Axis of the Mandala."

-from the Naradiya Samhita (pre-12th century), one of Krishnamacharya's stated sources for his revival of Tantric Āsana Vinyasa.
pdf version of this that blows up nicely on my google docs page

T. Krishnamacharya taught, among others, Pattabhi Jois, BKS Iyengar, TKV. Desikachar, TK. Sribhashyam, Srivatsa Ramaswami, AG. Mohan. The schools of Ashtanga, Iyeangar, Viniyoga Vinyasa Krama that have come from these teachers have of course been been highly influential and there is a strong likelihood that if you were decide to practice Yoga, the majority of the teachers in your area ( or books in your library, as was my case) will have been influenced to some degree by one or more of these schools and/or the satellite styles and variations that have derived from them.

Personally I was never that convinced by the suggestion that Krishnamacharya was so strongly influenced by the international fitness movement of his day, wrestlers exercises and/or the asana manuals in the Mysore palace libraries. Perhaps because when these suggestions came out I'd recently begun practicing a slower, less dynamic, approach to Ashtanga and found support for that approach in Krishnamacharya own texts from the 1930s and 40s. Krishnamacharya was stressing long slow inhalations and exhalations, kumbhaka (breath retentions), in almost every asana, long stays in certain postures and there was the suggestion of flexibility in the linking of asana, loose groups of asana rather than fixed sequences. The physical practice was closely linked to pranayama and meditation and embedded in a context of traditional yoga practices referenced to old, even ancient texts.

I have the same questions of course. How did the Vinyasa system come about; each movement from standing linked to the breath and counted, working towards a seated posture ( for example) before working back through the same sequence of postures and a return to standing. Why was there a kumbhaka (breath retention) at the end or beginning of each stage of the breath in Krishnamacharya (the breath held in after the inhalation and/or held out after the exhalation) and why was this not carried over into the Ashtanga of his long term student Pattabhi Jois.

I've come to feel that the key to answering these questions, the Ashtanga key may well be Surya namaskar, the sun salutation.

If we begin with the asana, paschimottanasana say, we might ask why Krishnamacharya added the postures either side of it, leading back and forth, to and from standing, why he encompassed the asana in the sequence and then began to link the breath and movements and finally introduce kumbhaka.

This viewpoint may well lead us to look at the exercises like the dand (chaturanga and upward facing dog) that we find practiced by Indian wrestlers

But what if we approach it from a different perspective and ask why Krishnamacharya added paschimottanasana to the Sun salutation?

What if we begin with the sun salutation, but not any sun salutation, the Surya namaskar with mantras.

Surya namaskar can perhaps be traced back to the epic The Ramayana (4th C BC?), where the hero Rama, wearied from shooting fruitless arrows at the demon king Ravena, was approached by the Sage/rishi Agastya who chanted a hymn/mantra/prayer to the sun god Suya which had the effect of removing Ravena's defences, allowing Rama to finally defeat him (see Appendix).

A tradition developed where a prostration and later a salutation would be introduced after each verse of the hymn. I actually practiced this with my teacher Ramaswami one Sunday on his teacher training course, the chant took two hours and we practiced 54 prostrations or sun salutations.

A shorter version/variation came about where 12 mantras would be chanted made up of three elements, each mantra would be followed by a prostration (see Appendix).

At some point the 12 mantras were integrated into each sun salutation, so a mantra would be chanted, then the arms raised and the next mantra chanted. The next mantra would come after folding over, the next after squatting down, the next after jumping back to chatauranga and the next after lowering the body to the floor and stretching the arms out above the head in prostration to Surya. The other mantras would be chanted at each stage, each posture, as one worked their way back to standing.

Surya at new Indra Gandhi Airport New Delhi 
Krishnamacharya seems to have taught this to students in the 1930s, he also taught it to his student of thirty years (1950s-80s), Srivatsa Ramaswami, who in turn taught it to us in his teacher training course 2010.

Indra Devi refers to this practice when recounting her studies with Krishnamacharya in Mysore in 1937, at the time when he was also teaching the young Pattabhi Jois and BKS Iyengar.

"In India, the Surya Namaskars are accompanied by the chanting of mantras, which are supposed to have a powerful effect on the mind, but on the glandular system as well". Indra Devi

from Yoga for health and  Happiness ( the chapter "In the Shala" on being taught by Krishnamacharya in 1937).

What's particularly interesting to me is that the mantra is chanted, whether aloud or mentally on a kumbhaka, while the breath is held in after an inhalation, as for example after the arms are raised at the beginning or after the exhalation when folding over and placing the hands on the floor.

Below is my version in the appendix you will find links to more recent version including a nice slideshow version by Ramaswami.



The kumbhaka was then an essential element of the Surya namaskar, the sun salutation. That was the point at which the mantra/prayer was chanted, the moment of contemplation.

The sun salutation had become popular in India at the time, it was an exercise phenomenon, today we might think of it as the latest exercise fad. Hundreds of Sun salutations without mantra, or indeed the actual full protestation, would be practiced daily and at lightening speed a complete salutation on only three breaths although breath retentions were still included as well as the first part of the mantra (see Appendix 12 and 13).


Krishnamacharya appears to have been dismissive of the fad and seems to have refused to teach a 'Suryanamaskara class' although one was held at the Mysore palace and the young Pattabhi Jois would likely have been exposed to it, but according to Devi it does seem that Krishnamacharya taught the more traditional version complete with full mantras on kumbhakas and each stage of the breath ( an inhalation or exhalation) accompanying each movement.

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It may appear that the whole point of the Surya namaskar, the salute to the sun, is the prostrated posture with contemplation. The other movements/postures lead one to and from that prostration.

Sounds familiar doesn't it.

All Krishnamacharya seems to have done is substitute different asana for the protestation.

Slot in paschimottansana or janu sirsasana or marichiyasana........

Everything else remains the same, we don't have to bring in any other explanation for the construction of the vinyasa system. I'm sure Krishnamacharya did see the Asana manuals in the mysore palace, he may well have looked to these just as he did to the tantra hatha texts like Hatha Yoga Pradipka for asana descriptions. Perhaps he, or more likely the Rajah of Aundh, was to some extent influenced by traditional India wrestling training in adapting slightly the approach to and from the prostration  But the vinyasa system the linking of postures to the breath seems to have been already there in the surya namaskar with mantras that Krishnamacharya appears to have been practicing at least as far back as the 1930's.

In Krishnamacharya's first book, Yoga Makaranda, he doesn't present the sun salutation as such, as  his student Pattabhi Jois does (stressing its historical tradition in his Surya namaskar pamphlet), but instead presents each movement that make up a sun salutation, as they lead to and from an asana, indicating the linking of the stage of the breath to each movement. He also includes an appropriate kumbhaka ( holding the breath in or out ) after either the inhalation or exhalation. And this is interesting because he doesn't merely stress the asana but every stage to and from the asana, there are kumbhaka's throughout just as if one were still chanting mantras.


In Yoga Makaranda Part II Krishnamcharya indicates that the kumbhaka should be 3-5 seconds (which is also how long it takes to chant each individual surya namaskar mantra).
It's as if Krishnamacharya has retained space for the prayer, the meditative contemplation and Krishnamacharya did say that in the Kumbhaka one sees/experiences God.

Krishnamacharya always keen to stress the independence of ones own religious belief, he may have removed the mantras (which are actually in this case quite secular) but he retained the kumbhaka, the space to introduce one's own contemplation. For those who don't believe in Ishvara, Krishnamacharya mentioned that Love could be Ishvara for them.

Krishnmacharya also stressed the Drishti. In Yoga Makaranda one's gaze throughout would be focussed between the eyebrows a point associated with Siva but later the tip of the nose was suggested especially if the head was down, head up look between the eyebrows, head down look to the tip of the nose. And later still other points some associated with other divinities but also with traditional marma points and health are introduced.

Kumbhaka, Drishti, contemplation all went together at every stage, every breath of every posture to and from an asana as well as while in the asana proper where a longer stay was often indicated.

We also know that Krishnamacharya would often/occasionally (?)  have the boys of the Mysore palace chant mantras while in postures, no doubt to keep their attentions. Manju Jois talks of the pranayama connection of chanting mantras, how mantras tend to be chanted on a kumbhaka, the mantra, kumbhaka, dristi connection is a common one.

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If this is indeed the case then who first made the connection between asana and the Suryanamaskara, of placing an asana in the context of the breath/kumbhaka/drishti associated with the postures making up the sun salutation, was it Krishnamacharya himself, his teacher Ramohan Brahmachari or perhaps his teachers teacher?

Pattabhi Jois mentions in interview that when as a 13 year old boy he first saw Krishnamacharya, he was impressed by his '...jumping from asana to asana'. This would suggest that the linking of the asana to the sequence of postures that make up the suryanamaskara goes back before the Mysore period of Krishnamacharya's teaching .

Why didn't Pattabhi Jois maintain the kumbhaka element in his presentation of asana.

In the 1938 Mysore black and white demonstration by Krishnamacharya and his family we see little evidence of the use of kumbhaka, certainly not by BNS Iyengar who jumps from asana to asana just as krishnamacharya may have done in his early demonstrations of asana. Was it this high energy approach to asana practice that impressed  the young Pattabhi Jois and that he wished to continue. He does however stress again and again in interviews throughout his life that the breath should be long and slow and yet in one video demonstration he Indicates the breath should be around 10-15 seconds for each inhalation and exhalation but then proceeds to lead his demonstrators ( including Lino Miele) through asana at around five seconds or less. Pattabhi Jois stated that long slow breathing was the ideal but that in modern life when people have jobs to go to a shorter breath may be appropriate.

Sribhashyam, Krishnamacharya's third son has written that the inhalation and exhalation indicate motion which signifies time, the kumbhaka however is non-motion, an absence of time as such each kumbhaka is perhaps an experience of the eternal.

Perhaps the practice that Krishnamacharya presents in Yoga Makaranda is an ideal, where the breath is long and slow, the kumbhaka present as a space for contemplation. Krishnamacharya brings not just pranayama into asana but also dharana.


from The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali-Illuminations
Through Image, Commentary and Design by Gary Kissiah

  


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Appendix

1. Sun Salutation with mantras
2. Sun Salutation / Suryanamaskara with mantra 
3. Indra Devi
4. What would Krishnamacharya's Sun Salutation be like?
5. Adityahridayam (Wikipedia)
6. Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation)''
7. Ramaswami on chanting with Krishnamacharya
8. SURYA
9. Surya Namaskara History (Wikipedia)
10. Origins of surya namaskar (Wikipedia)
11. Surya Namaskar Origins (Wikipedia)
12 Balasahib's 'original' 1928 Suya Namaskar, sun salutation 
13. More on the 'original' Sun salutation of 1928

1. Sun Salutation with mantras

Srivatsa Ramaswami's 'Complete book of Vinyasa Krama' has a traditional version of the Sun salutation laid out with the corresponding mantras. The idea is that you would move into each pose, retain the inhale or exhale while mentally chanting the mantra.

On the Vinyasa Krama home page you can find a link to Chants and Mantras including the Sury Namaskara chants available for download. To try and learn/practice it, I edited in some pauses to allow me time to enter the postures, and have been playing it on my itouch while performing the Salutation.

It's different, a nice alternative to the usual Sury. I tried to video it this morning but made a bit of a hash of it. First my practice room is too narrow to get a good angle and second, when I played it back, I could hardly hear the audio and had to spend most of the afternoon trying to work out how to switch audio files and synch with the picture. This is as close as I got, not great but perhaps good enough to get an idea of how it works.

You have the option of chanting the full mantra (actually it's three mantras joined together) or just the quick version down below which would mean a shorter breath retention.

The book includes full translations of each of the mantras. and here's a link to an article by Ramaswami on the Sun Salutation with mantra.

*One note on the Video, the squat posture before the first Chatauranga, is like Pasasana without the bind, squatting with the heels down rather than sitting on the mat (difficult to see that from behind).



The Twelve Sury Namaskara mantras





1. Om Hram
udhyannadya mitramaha
Mitraaya Namaha








2. Om Hrim
ārohannuttarāṃ divam
Ravaye Namaha

NB. Fingers are interlaced, palms facing outwards






3. Om Hroom
hṛdroghaṃ mamsūrya
Suryaaya Namaha









4. Om Hraim
harimāṇaṃca nāśaya
Bhaanve Namaha

NB. Squatting on heels






5. Om Hraum
śukeṣume harimāṇaṃ
khagaaya Namaha

NB. I know Susan, elbows in : )







6. Om Hrah
ropaṇākāsu dadhmasi
Pooshney Namaha

NB. Arms out stretched hands together






7. Om Hram
atho hāridraveṣume
Hiranayagarbhaaya Namah








8. Om Hrim
harimāṇaṃ ni dadhmasi
Om Mareechibhyoh Namaha









9. Om Hroom
udaghādayamādityo
Adityaaya Namaha








10.Om Hraim
viśvena sahasā saha
Savitre Namaha






11. Om Hraum
viṣantaṃ mahyaṃ randhyan
Arkaaya Namaha











12. Om Hrah
mo aham dviṣate radham
Bhaaskaraaya Namah




The Above mantras have three parts,

Part 1. (Quick version) Bijakshara mantras
1. Om Hram
2. Om Hrim
3. Om Hroom
4. Om Hraim
5. Om Hraum
6. Om Hrah
7. Om Hram
8. Om Hrim
9. Om Hroom
10. Om Hraim
11. Om Hraum
12. Om Hrah


Part 2. Mantras from the veda

1. Udhyannadya mitramaha
2. Arohannuttarāṃ divam 

3. Hṛdroghaṃ mamsūrya
4. Harimāṇaṃca nāśaya 

5. Sukeṣume harimāṇaṃ
6. Ropaṇākāsu dadhmasi 

7. Atho hāridraveṣume
8. Harimāṇaṃ ni dadhmasi 

9. Udaghādayamādityo
10. Viśvena sahasā saha 

11. Dviṣantaṃ mahyaṃ randhyan
12. Mo aham dviṣate radham 


Part 3 Laukika Mantra


1. Om Mitraaya Namaha (Salutations to the Friend of All)

2. Om Ravaye Namaha (Salutations to the Shining One)

3. Om Suryaaya Namaha (Salutations to he who induces activity )

4. Om Bhaanve Namaha (Salutations to he who illumines)

5. Om khagaaya Namaha - Salutations to one who moves through the sky

6. Om Pooshney Namaha - Salutations to the giver of strength and nourishment 

7. Om Hiranayagarbhaaya Namah - Salutations to the Golden Cosmic Self 

8. Om Mareechibhyoh Namaha - Salutations to the Rays of the Sun

9. Om Adityaaya Namaha - Salutations to Sun of Aditi (the Cosmic Mother) 

10. Om Savitre Namaha - Salutations to the Stimulating power of the Sun

11. Om Arkaaya Namaha - Salutations to he who is fit to be praised (arka= energy)

12. Om Bhaaskaraaya Namah - Salutations to the one who leads to enlightenment


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2. Sun Salutation / Suryanamaskara with mantra 

At the end of Ramaswami's newsletter this month I added on the Sun salutation with mantra video I'd stumbled across, that was filmed on Ramaswami's Teacher training this year. However, Ramaswami is chanting quite quickly through that video, its a little hard to catch.

This week Ramaswami has Uploaded a much slower version of the Sun salutation mantras in his 'slideshow series'. It's a kind of tutorial.



Below is the version filmed on Ramaswami's TT that I added to his newsletter.

A video of Ramaswami's Sun Salutations with mantras (also sun salutations to directions- 'Ding namaskars') posted by Yvette who I think must have been on Ramaswami's TT this year. I'm excited about this as a couple of years ago I spent forever trying to make a version of this, practicing along to the recording of the mantras Ramaswami had made as a tutorial (listen and repeat) and that were originally included with his Complete book of Vinyasa yoga. The tutorial can still be found on Ramaswami's chant page. http://vinyasakrama.com/Chants


Sun Salutation with Mantra (samantraka-suryanamaskara)

Om Hram. Uddannadya mitramahah.
(You, the One rising now and daily, are the great friend, salutations to the great friend.)
Om Hrim. Arohannuttaram divam. Ravaye namah.
(Climbing, the great one, up the sky. Oh the fast mover, salutation to you.
Om Hrum. Hrudrogam mama surya. Suryaya namah.
(My heart ailment, O the divine guide. My salutations to the divine Surya.
Om Hraim. Harimanancha nasaya. Bhanave namah.
(And the green patches (on my skin due to heart ailment) you destroy. Salutations to you, the provider of light into the world.
Om Hraum. Sukeshu mey harimanam. Khagaya namah.
(Salutations to Thee, the mover in space.
Om Hrah. Ropanakasu dadhmasi. pushne namah.
(And give to the herbs used for healing paste. Salutations to thee the great Nourisher.
Om Hram. Atho Haaridraveshu mey. Hiranyagarbhaaya namah.
(To the green trees. My salutations are to the Golden creator (womb))
Om Hrim. Harimanannidaddhmasi. Marchaye namah.
(Deposit the green patches. Salutations to the radiant one.
Om Hrum. Udagadayamadityah. Adityaya namah.
(This Sun rising in the sky. Salutations to Aditya.
(tutorial)

Then
Salutation To Directions
(Ding-Namaskara)

Om! namh prachyai diseyascha devata yetasyam prativasanti yetabhyasch namah!
(Om. I bow to the east and the guardian angels that permeate it.)
Om! namh dakshinayai diseyascha devata yetasyam prativasanti yetabhyasch namah!
(Om. I bow to the south and the guardian angels that permeate it.)
Om! namh prateechyai diseyascha devata yetasyam prativasanti yetabhyasch namah!
(Om. I bow to the west and the guardian angels that permeate it.)
Om! nama udeechyai diseyascha devata yetasyam prativasanti yetabhyasch namah!
(Om. I bow to the north and the guardian angels that permeate it.)
Om! namh urdwayai diseyascha devata yetasyam prativasanti yetabhyasch namah!
(Om. I bow to the upward diection and the guardian angels that permeate it.)
Om! Namo adharayai diseyascha devata yetasyam prativasanti yetabhyasch namah!
(Om. I bow to the downward diection and the guardian angels that permeate it.)
Om! namo avantharayai diseyascha devata yetasyam prativasanti yetabhyasch namah!
(Om. I bow to the intermediate direction and the guardian angels that permeate it.)

And a link to my own post on Ramaswami presentation of the Sun salutation mantras, which includes the practice along video as well as screenshots accompanying each mantra

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3. Indra Devi

"In India, the Surya Namaskars are accompanied by the chanting of mantras, which are supposed to have a powerful effect on the mind, but on the glandular system as well". Indra Devi 
from In the Shala : Yoga for health and  Happiness ( the chapter on being taught by Krishnamacharya in 1937).




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4. What would Krishnamacharya's Sun Salutation be like?


What would Krishnamacharya's Suryanamaska be like? Krishnamacharya it seems frowned somewhat on sunsalutations especially large numbers of them performed as an 'exercise practice', he seems to have been referring here to 108 or even 1008 as was in vogue at the time,

See my earlier posts below on 'The Original Sun Salutation'



Krishnamacharya didn't seem to want to include sun salutations in his Mysore Palace asana class nor did he seem to have taught the separate Mysore palace Surynamaskara class that was running at the time (was this taken by the young Pattabhi Jois perhaps, or did he at least attend and was that why Jois included it in his Ashtanga practice that we are familiar with?).

Krishnamacharya did however teach each stage of the sun salutation as individual asana often with long stays at each stage, we find them in his 1934 book Yoga Makaranda.

The 'full vinyasa' transition too that we're so familiar with in Ashtanga is also found in Yoga makaranda.  From this then it should be possible to construct a sub routine, a sun salutation, that includes Krishnamacharya's principles.

There's also the suggestion that Krishnamacharya would on occasion teach Surynamascara with mantras, the same perhaps as he taught to Ramaswami several years later and who in turn taught us on his TT course 2010

See this post



Is attempting to construct a Krishnamacharya  Sun salutation a frivolous exercise? Of course it is and yet the sun salutation isn't going away so why not take note of the instructions gave to us by the teacher's teacher as we pass through each stage.

And of course we don't have to pass through on the breath. We tend to stay five breaths in Adhomukhasvanasana anyway and David Williams supposedly takes five breaths in Urdhvamukhasvanasana as well to counter all those primary series forward bends, why not take the same in Chaturanga and/or uttanasana, five ten breaths at each stage of the Salutation with long slow inhalations and exhalations and perhaps even the appropriate kumbhakas (breath retention).


When I was having trouble with my back a few months back I would spend five long slow breaths in each stage, I found the longer stay in uttanasana (vinyasa 1) most beneficial.

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Here then are Krishnamacharya's instructions for each asana found in the surynamaskara, the sun salutation. All quotes are taken from the translation from the Tamil Language by Sri CMV Krishnamacharya with Sri S Ranganathadesikacharya.

See my earlier post which includes links to a free download of the text.

Samasthithi

Tadasana 

"This has 2 vinyasas. Stand as seen in the picture for fifteen minutes daily. Make this a habit. It will create new energy in the body and a vigour in the walk and will increase the digestive power. Not only that, it cleans the rudra nadi and increases the life-span. While doing this asana, follow sama svasam (equal breath).Practise this asana every day at sunrise while worshipping surya bhagavan. If one practises this daily, it will definitely increase the life- span".
Uttanasana

"...exhale the breath (that was being held) out very slowly through the nostril, lower the head and place it on the knees. Do not inhale at this stage. Draw the breath in while raising the head and exhale the breath out while lowering the head — this must be practised according to one’s strength and capability. In this position, while the head is raised and while it is lowered and placed onto the knee, the palms must be firmly pressed against the ground. This sthiti is called uttanasana. Initially, when one remains in this sthiti, there might be an occurence of tremors in the arms and legs. At these times, if one holds the breath firmly and stands, these tremors will not occur".


"...bend the upper part of the body (that is, the part above the hip) little by little and place the palms down by the legs. The knees must not be even slightly bent. Raise the head upwards and fix the gaze on the tip of the nose. While doing this, draw in clean air through the nostril, hold the breath firmly and maintain this position. This is called sahitha kumbhaka. After remaining here for some time, exhale the breath (that was being held) out very slowly through the nostril, lower the head and place it on the knees. Do not inhale at this stage. Draw the breath in while raising the head and exhale the breath out while lowering the head — this must be practised according to one’s strength and capability. In this position, while the head is raised and while it is lowered and placed onto the knee, the palms must be firmly pressed against the ground. This sthiti is called uttanasana. Initially, when one remains in this sthiti, there might be an occurence of tremors in the arms and legs. At these times, if one holds the breath firmly and stands, these tremors will not occur". 
Caturanga Dandasana

"Press both palms down firmly while doing the 4th vinyasa from the 3rd vinyasa of uttanasana. Do only recaka and firmly hold the breath out without doing puraka. Keeping the weight balanced equally on both legs, jump backwards (keeping both legs parallel to each other) and holding the body straight like a rod, lie down facing downwards. At this time, only the palms and toes touch the ground. No other parts of the body touch the ground. That is, there must be 4 angulas of space between the body and the ground. In this position, if you keep a stick or rod on top of the body, the rod must touch the body completely. We need to keep our body this straight. But make sure to check gaps formed by the muscles and mounds of flesh to determine if all the adjustments are correct".
Urdhvamukhasvanasana

"In caturanga dandasana, there are 4 angulas of space between the body and the floor everywhere. In this asana, the palms and toes are as in caturanga dandasana. However even while keeping the lower part of the body from the toes to the thighs just as in caturanga dandasana, raise the upper part of the body. Make sure that the navel rests between the hands and do puraka kumbhaka. Try to push the chest as far forward as possible, lift the face up and keep gazing at the tip of the nose. Make the effort to practise until it becomes possible to remain in this posture for fifteen minutes".
Adhomukhasvanasana

"...from Urdhvamukhasvanasana The entire body should be pushed back into a curve. Study the picture and learn this. In this sthiti, the head should be properly bent inwards and the chin should be pressed firmly against the chest. After pulling the abdomen in and pushing it out, exhale the breath out. Holding the breath out firmly, pull in the abdomen. As a result of the strength of practice, one learns to hold this posture for fifteen minutes".

Jump or step to...  

Uttanasana


"...bend the upper part of the body (that is, the part above the hip) little by little and place the palms down by the legs. The knees must not be even slightly bent. Raise the head upwards and fix the gaze on the tip of the nose. While doing this, draw in clean air through the nostril, hold the breath firmly and maintain this position. This is called sahitha kumbhaka. After remaining here for some time..." 

2nd vinyasa of uttanasana.


"...exhale the breath (that was being held) out very slowly through the nostril, lower the head and place it on the knees. Do not inhale at this stage. Draw the breath in while raising the head and exhale the breath out while lowering the head — this must be practised according to one’s strength and capability. In this position, while the head is raised and while it is lowered and placed onto the knee, the palms must be firmly pressed against the ground. This sthiti is called uttanasana. Initially, when one remains in this sthiti, there might be an occurence of tremors in the arms and legs. At these times, if one holds the breath firmly and stands, these tremors will not occur".

"Afterwards, return to samasthiti".




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Krishnamacharya paschimottanasana 
including transitions

"This asana has many kramas. Of these the first form has 16 vinyasas. Just doing the asana sthiti by sitting in the same spot without doing these vinyasas will not yield the complete benefits mentioned in the yoga sastras. This rule applies to all asanas.
The first three vinyasas are exactly as for uttanasana. The 4th vinyasa is caturanga dandasana, the 5th vinyasa is urdhvamukhasvanasana, the 6th vinyasa is adhomukhasvanasana. Practise these following the earlier instructions. In the 6th vinyasa, doing puraka kumbhaka, jump and arrive at the 7th vinyasa. That is, from adhomukhasvanasana sthiti, jump forward and move both legs between the arms without allowing the legs to touch the floor. Extend the legs out forward and sit down. Practise sitting like this with the rear part of the body either between the two hands or 4 angulas in front of the hands. It is better to learn the abhyasa krama from a guru. In this sthiti, push the chest forward, do puraka kumbhaka and gaze steadily at the tip of the nose. After this extend both arms out towards the feet (the legs are already extended in front). Clasp the big toes of the feet tightly with the first three fingers (thumb, index, middle) of the hands such that the left hand holds the left big toe and the right hand holds the right big toe. Do not raise the knees even slightly. Then, pull in the stomach while doing recaka, lower the head and press the face down onto the knee. The knees should not rise from the ground in this sthiti either. This is the 9th vinyasa. This is called pascimottanasana. In the beginning, everybody will find it very dicult. The nerves in the back, the thighs and the backs of the knees will feel as though they are being fiercely pulled and this will be extremely painful. The pain will remain for 8 days. After this, the pulling on the nerves will release and it will be possible to do the asana without any problem. This pascimottanasana has many forms. After first practising this asana with the face pressed onto the knee, practise it with the chin placed on the knee and then eventually with it placed 3 angulas below the knee on the calf. In the 10th vinyasa raise the head. In the 11th vinyasa, keeping the hands firmly pressed on the ground, raise the entire body o the ground and balance it in the air without touching the ground. The 11th vinyasa is called uthpluthi. The 12th vinyasa is caturanga dandasana. The 13th is urdhvamukhasvanasana. The 14th is adhomukhasvanasana. The 15th is the first vinyasa of uttanasana. The 16th vinyasa is the 2nd vinyasa of uttanasana. Afterwards, return to samasthiti. You should learn the intricacies of this vinyasa only from a guru".

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5. Adityahridayam

from here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adityahridayam

Ādityahṛdayam (Sanskritआदित्यहृदयम्Sanskrit pronunciation: [ad̪ɪt̪jəhɾd̪əjʌm]), is a devotional hymnassociated with Aditya or the Sun God (Surya) and was recited by the sage Agastya to Rāma on the battlefield before fighting the demon king Rāvana. This historic hymn starts at the beginning of the duel between Rāma and Rāvana. Agastya teaches Rāma, who is fatigued after the long battle with various warriors of Lanka, the procedure of worshiping the Sun God for strength to defeat the enemy. These verses belong to Yuddha Kānda (Book 6) Canto 107, in the Rāmāyana as composed by Agastya and compiled by Vālmīki.[1]

Etymology

Aditya (Sanskritआदित्य, Lit. Son of Aditi) refers to the Sun. Hridayam (Sanskritहृदयम्) is the Sanskrit word for heart.

Significance of slokas

In Ādityahṛdayam there are thirty slokas in total. The significance of the verses is as follows:
1,2  : Approach of Agastya to Rama.
3, 4, 5 : Greatness of the Aditya Hridayam and advantages of reciting it.
6 – 15  : Surya as a means of self-evident consciousness, conveying that the One pervading outside and inside is the same.
16 – 20 : Mantra Japa.
21 – 24 : Mantra slokas extolling the Sun God.
25 – 30 : The fruits of this prayer, the method of recital and the procedure followed by Shri Rama, invoking God to bless him with the requisite strength for the victory in the battle field.

Text

DevanagariIAST
॥ आदित्यहृदयम्॥.. ādityahṛdayam ..
ततो युद्धपरिश्रान्तं समरे चिन्तया स्थितम्।tato yuddhapariśrāntaṃ samare chintayā sthitam
रावणं चाग्रतो दृष्ट्वा युद्धाय समुपस्थितम्॥ १॥rāvaṇaṃ cāgrato dṛṣṭvā yuddhāya samupasthitam .. 1 ..
दैवतैश्च समागम्य द्रष्टुमभ्यागतो रणम्।daivataiśca samāgamya draṣṭumabhyāgato raṇam
उपागम्याब्रवीद्राममगस्त्यो भगवान् ऋषिः॥ २॥upāgamyābravīdrāmamagastyo bhagavān ṛṣiḥ .. 2 ..
राम राम महाबाहो शृणु गुह्यं सनातनम्।rāma rāma mahābāho śṛṇu guhyaṃ sanātanam
येन सर्वानरीन् वत्स समरे विजयिष्यसि॥ ३॥yena sarvānarīn vatsa samare vijayiṣyasi .. 3 ..
आदित्यहृदयं पुण्यं सर्वशत्रुविनाशनम्।ādityahṛdayaṃ puṇyaṃ sarvaśatruvināśanam
जयावहं जपेन्नित्यम् अक्षय्यं परमं शिवम्॥ ४॥jayāvahaṃ japennityam akṣayyaṃ paramaṃ śivam .. 4 ..
सर्वमङ्गलमाङ्गल्यं सर्वपापप्रणाशनम्।sarvamaṅgalamāṅgalyaṃ sarvapāpapraṇāśanam
चिन्ताशोकप्रशमनम् आयुर्वर्धनमुत्तमम्॥ ५॥cintāśokapraśamanam āyurvardhanamuttamam .. 5 ..
रश्मिमंतं समुद्यन्तं देवासुरनमस्कृतम्।raśmimaṃtaṃ samudyantaṃ devāsuranamaskṛtam
पूजयस्व विवस्वन्तं भास्करं भुवनेश्वरम्॥ ६॥pūjayasva vivasvantaṃ bhāskaraṃ bhuvaneśvaram .. 6 ..
सर्वदेवात्मको ह्येष तेजस्वी रश्मिभावनः।sarvadevātmako hyeṣa tejasvī raśmibhāvanaḥ
एष देवासुरगणाँल्लोकान् पाति गभस्तिभिः॥ ७॥eṣa devāsuragaṇām̐llokān pāti gabhastibhiḥ .. 7 ..
एष ब्रह्मा च विष्णुश्च शिवः स्कन्दः प्रजापतिः।eṣa brahmā ca viṣṇuśca śivaḥ skandaḥ prajāpatiḥ
महेन्द्रो धनदः कालो यमः सोमो ह्यपां पतिः॥ ८॥mahendro dhanadaḥ kālo yamaḥ somo hyapāṃ patiḥ .. 8 ..
पितरो वसवः साध्या ह्यश्विनौ मरुतो मनुः।pitaro vasavaḥ sādhyā hyaśvinau maruto manuḥ
वायुर्वह्निः प्रजाप्राण ऋतुकर्ता प्रभाकरः॥ ९॥vāyurvahniḥ prajāprāṇa ṛtukartā prabhākaraḥ .. 9 ..
आदित्यः सविता सूर्यः खगः पूषा गभस्तिमान्।ādityaḥ savitā sūryaḥ khagaḥ pūṣā gabhastimān
सुवर्णसदृशो भानुर्हिरण्यरेता दिवाकरः॥ १०॥suvarṇasadṛśo bhānurhiraṇyaretā divākaraḥ .. 10 ..
हरिदश्वः सहस्रार्चिः सप्तसप्तिर्मरीचिमान्।haridaśvaḥ sahasrārciḥ saptasaptirmarīcimān
तिमिरोन्मथनः शम्भुस्त्वष्टा मार्ताण्ड अंशुमान्॥ ११॥timironmathanaḥ śambhustvaṣṭā mārtāṇḍa aṃśumān .. 11 ..
हिरण्यगर्भः शिशिरस्तपनो भास्करो रविः।hiraṇyagarbhaḥ śiśirastapano bhāskaro raviḥ
अग्निगर्भोऽदितेः पुत्रः शङ्खः शिशिरनाशनः॥ १२॥agnigarbho'diteḥ putraḥ śaṅkhaḥ śiśiranāśanaḥ .. 12 ..
व्योमनाथस्तमोभेदी ऋग्यजुःसामपारगः।vyomanāthastamobhedī ṛgyajuḥsāmapāragaḥ
घनवृष्टिरपां मित्रो विन्ध्यवीथीप्लवङ्गमः॥ १३॥ghanavṛṣṭirapāṃ mitro vindhyavīthīplavaṅgamaḥ .. 13 ..
आतपी मण्डली मृत्युः पिङ्गलः सर्वतापनः।ātapī maṇḍalī mṛtyuḥ piṅgalaḥ sarvatāpanaḥ
कविर्विश्वो महातेजाः रक्तः सर्वभवोद्भवः॥ १४॥kavirviśvo mahātejāḥ raktaḥ sarvabhavodbhavaḥ .. 14 ..
नक्षत्रग्रहताराणामधिपो विश्वभावनः।nakṣatragrahatārāṇāmadhipo viśvabhāvanaḥ
तेजसामपि तेजस्वी द्वादशात्मन् नमोऽस्तु ते॥ १५॥tejasāmapi tejasvī dvādaśātman namo'stu te .. 15 ..
नमः पूर्वाय गिरये पश्चिमायाद्रये नमः।namaḥ pūrvāya giraye paścimāyādraye namaḥ
ज्योतिर्गणानां पतये दिनाधिपतये नमः॥ १६॥jyotirgaṇānāṃ pataye dinādhipataye namaḥ .. 16 ..
जयाय जयभद्राय हर्यश्वाय नमो नमः।jayāya jayabhadrāya haryaśvāya namo namaḥ
नमो नमः सहस्रांशो आदित्याय नमो नमः॥ १७॥namo namaḥ sahasrāṃśo ādityāya namo namaḥ .. 17 ..
नम उग्राय वीराय सारङ्गाय नमो नमः।nama ugrāya vīrāya sāraṅgāya namo namaḥ
नमः पद्मप्रबोधाय मार्ताण्डाय नमो नमः॥ १८॥namaḥ padmaprabodhāya mārtāṇḍāya namo namaḥ .. 18 ..
ब्रह्मेशानाच्युतेशाय सूर्यायादित्यवर्चसे।brahmeśānācyuteśāya sūryāyādityavarcase
भास्वते सर्वभक्षाय रौद्राय वपुषे नमः॥ १९॥bhāsvate sarvabhakṣāya raudrāya vapuṣe namaḥ .. 19 ..
तमोघ्नाय हिमघ्नाय शत्रुघ्नायामितात्मने।tamoghnāya himaghnāya śatrughnāyāmitātmane
कृतघ्नघ्नाय देवाय ज्योतिषां पतये नमः॥ २०॥kṛtaghnaghnāya devāya jyotiṣāṃ pataye namaḥ .. 20 ..
तप्तचामीकराभाय वह्नये विश्वकर्मणे।taptacāmīkarābhāya vahnaye viśvakarmaṇe
नमस्तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय रुचये लोकसाक्षिणे॥ २१॥namastamo'bhinighnāya rucaye lokasākṣiṇe .. 21 ..
नाशयत्येष वै भूतं तदेव सृजति प्रभुः।nāśayatyeṣa vai bhūtaṃ tadeva sṛjati prabhuḥ
पायत्येष तपत्येष वर्षत्येष गभस्तिभिः॥ २२॥pāyatyeṣa tapatyeṣa varṣatyeṣa gabhastibhiḥ .. 22 ..
एष सुप्तेषु जागर्ति भूतेषु परिनिष्ठितः।eṣa supteṣu jāgarti bhūteṣu pariniṣṭhitaḥ
एष एवाग्निहोत्रं च फलं चैवाग्निहोत्रिणाम्॥ २३॥eṣa evāgnihotraṃ ca phalaṃ caivāgnihotriṇām .. 23 ..
वेदाश्च क्रतवश्चैव क्रतूनां फलमेव च।vedāśca kratavaścaiva kratūnāṃ phalameva ca
यानि कृत्यानि लोकेषु सर्व एष रविः प्रभुः॥ २४॥yāni kṛtyāni lokeṣu sarva eṣa raviḥ prabhuḥ .. 24 ..
॥ फलश्रुतिः॥
एनमापत्सु कृच्छ्रेषु कान्तारेषु भयेषु च।enamāpatsu kṛcchreṣu kāntāreṣu bhayeṣu ca
कीर्तयन् पुरुषः कश्चिन्नावसीदति राघव॥ २५॥kīrtayan puruṣaḥ kaścinnāvasīdati rāghava .. 25 ..
पूजयस्वैनमेकाग्रो देवदेवं जगत्पतिम्।pūjayasvainamekāgro devadevaṃ jagatpatim
एतत् त्रिगुणितं जप्त्वा युद्धेषु विजयिष्यसि॥ २६॥etat triguṇitaṃ japtvā yuddheṣu vijayiṣyasi .. 26 ..
अस्मिन् क्षणे महाबाहो रावणं त्वं वधिष्यसि।asmin kṣaṇe mahābāho rāvaṇaṃ tvaṃ vadhiṣyasi
एवमुक्त्वा तदागस्त्यो जगाम च यथागतम्॥ २७॥evamuktvā tadāgastyo jagāma ca yathāgatam .. 27 ..
एतच्छ्रुत्वा महातेजा नष्टशोकोऽभवत्तदा।etacchrutvā mahātejā naṣṭaśoko'bhavattadā
धारयामास सुप्रीतो राघवः प्रयतात्मवान्॥ २८॥dhārayāmāsa suprīto rāghavaḥ prayatātmavān .. 28 ..
आदित्यं प्रेक्ष्य जप्त्वा तु परं हर्षमवाप्तवान्।ādityaṃ prekṣya japtvā tu paraṃ harṣamavāptavān
त्रिराचम्य शुचिर्भूत्वा धनुरादाय वीर्यवान्॥ २९॥trirācamya śucirbhūtvā dhanurādāya vīryavān .. 29 ..
रावणं प्रेक्ष्य हृष्टात्मा युद्धाय समुपागमत्।rāvaṇaṃ prekṣya hṛṣṭātmā yuddhāya samupāgamat
सर्वयत्नेन महता वधे तस्य धृतोऽभवत्॥ ३०॥sarvayatnena mahatā vadhe tasya dhṛto'bhavat .. 30 ..
अथ रविरवदन्निरीक्ष्य रामंatha raviravadannirīkṣya rāmaṃ
मुदितमनाः परमं प्रहृष्यमाणः।muditamanāḥ paramaṃ prahṛṣyamāṇaḥ
निशिचरपतिसंक्षयं विदित्वाniśicarapatisaṃkṣayaṃ viditvā
सुरगणमध्यगतो वचस्त्वरेति॥ ३१॥suragaṇamadhyagato vacastvareti .. 31 ..
॥ इति आदित्यहृदयम् मन्त्रस्य॥.. iti ādityahṛdayam mantrasya ..

Meaning

tato yuddhapariśrāntaṃ samare chintayā sthitam rāvaṇaṃ cāgrato dṛṣṭvā yuddhāya samupasthitam.1
Rama, exhausted and about to face Ravana ready for a fresh battle was lost deep in contemplation.
daivataiśca samāgamya draṣṭumabhyāgato raṇam upāgamyābravīdrāmamagastyo bhagavān ṛṣiḥ 2
The all knowing sage Agastya who had joined the Gods to witness the battle spoke to Rama thus
Raama Raama mahaabaaho shrnu guhyam sanaatanam yena sarvaanariinvatsa samare vijayishhyasi. 3
Oh Rama, mighty-armed Rama, listen to this eternal secret, which will help you destroy all your enemies in battle
Aaditya hrudayam punyam sarva shatru vinaashanam Jayaavaham japennityam akshayyam paramam shivam. 4
This holy hymn dedicated to the Sun deity will result in destroying all enemies and bring you victory and never ending supreme bliss.
Sarvamangalamaangalyam sarvapaapapranaashanam. Chintaashokaprashamanam aayurvardhanamuttamam. 5
This hymn is supreme and is a guarantee of complete prosperity and is the destroyer of sin, anxiety, anguish and is the bestower of longevity.
Rashmimantam samudyantam devaasuranamaskrutam. Puujayasva vivasvantam bhaaskaram bhuvaneshvaram. 6
Worship the One, possessed of rays when he has completely risen, held in reverence by the devas and asuras, and who is the Lord of the universe by whose effulgence all else brighten.
Sarvadevaatmako hyeshha tejasvii rashmibhaavanah.Eshha devaasuraganaa.nllokaan paati gabhastibh. 7
He indeed represent the totality of all celestial beings. He is self-luminous and sustains all with his rays. He nourishes and energizes the inhabitants of all the worlds and the race of Devas and Asuras.
Eshhah brahmaa cha vishhnushcha shivah skandah prajaapati. Mahendro dhanadah kaalo yamah somo hyapaam pati. 8
He is Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Skanda, Prajapati. He is also Mahendra, kubera, kala, yama, soma and varuna.
Pitaro vasavah saadhyaa hyashvinau maruto manuh.Vaayurvahnih prajaapraana ritukartaa prabhaakarah. 9
He is the pitrs, vasus, sadhyas, aswini devas, maruts, manu, vayu, agni, prana and, being the source of all energy and light, is the maker of all the six seasons.
Aadityah savitaa suuryah khagah puushhaa gabhastimaan. Suvarnasadrsho bhaanu rvishvaretaa divaakarah. 10
He is the son of Aditi, creator of the universe, inspirer of action, transverser of the heavens. He is the sustainer, illumination of all directions, the golden hued brilliance and is the maker of the day.
Haridashvah sahasraarchih saptasaptirmariichimaan. Timironmathanah shambhustvashhtaa maartandam anshumaan. 11
He is the Omnipresent One who pervades all with countless rays. He is the power behind the seven sense organs, the dispeller of darkness, bestower of happiness and prosperity, the remover of misfortunes and is the infuser of life.
Hiranyagarbhah shishirastapano bhaaskaro ravihi Agnigarbhoaditeh putrah shankha shishiranaashanah. 12
He is the primordial being manifesting as the Trinity. He ushers in the Day and is the teacher (of Hiranyagarbha), the fire-wombed, the son of Aditi, and has a vast and supreme felicity. He is the remover of intellectual dull-headedness.
Vyomanaatha stamobhedii rig yajuh saama paaragah. Ghana vrishhti rapaam mitro vindhya viithii plavangama... 13
He is the Lord of the firmament, dispeller of darkness. Master of all the vedas, he is a friend of the waters and causes rain. HE has crossed the vindya range and sports in the Brahma Nadi.
Aatapii mandalii mrityuh pingalah sarvataapanah. Kavirvishvo mahaatejaa raktah ssarva bhavod hbhava. 14
He, whose form is circular and is colored yellow, is intensely absorbed and inflicts death. He is the destroyer of all and is the Omniscient one being exceedingly energetic sustains the universe and all action.
Nakshatra grahataaraanaam adhipo vishva bhaavanah. Tejasaamapi tejasvii dvaadashaatman namostute 15
He is the lord of stars, planets and all constellations. He is the origin of everything in the universe and is the cause of the lustre of even the brilliant ones. Salutations to Thee who is the One being manifest in the twelve forms of the Sun.
Namah puurvaaya giraye pashchimaayaadraye namah. Jyotirganaanaam pataye dinadhipataye nama. 16
Salutations to the Eastern and western mountain, Salutations to the Lord of the stellar bodies and the Lord of the Day.
Jayaaya jayabhadraaya haryashvaaya namo namah. Namo namah sahasraansha aadityaaya namo nama. 17
Salutations to the One who ordains victory and the prosperity that follows. Salutations to the one possessed of yellow steeds and to the thousand rayed Lord, and to Aditya.
Namah ugraaya viiraaya saarangaaya namo namah. Namah padma prabodhaaya maartandaaya namo nama. 18
Salutations to the Terrible one, the hero, the one that travels fast. Salutations to the one whose emergence makes the lotus blossom and to the fierce and omnipotent one.
Brahmeshaana achyuteshaaya suuryaayaadityavarchase. Bhaasvate sarvabhakshaaya raudraaya vapushhe nama. 19
Salutations to the Lord of Brahma, shiva and Achyuta, salutations to the powerful and to the effulgence in the Sun that is both the illuminator and devourer of all and is of a form that is fierce like Rudra.
Tamoghnaaya himagnaaya shatrughnaaya amitaatmane. Kritaghnaghnaaya devaaya jyotishhaam pataye nama. 20
Salutations to he transcendental atman that dispels darkness, drives away all fear, and destroys all foes. Salutations also to the annihilator of the ungrateful and to the Lord of all the stellar bodies.
Tapta chaamiika raabhaaya haraye vishvakarmane. Namastamo.abhinighnaaya ravaye lokasaakshine 21
Salutations to the Lord shining like molten gold, to the transcendental fire, the fire of supreme knowledge, the architect of the universe, destroyer of darkness and salutations again to the effulgence that is the Cosmic witness.
Naashayatyeshha vai bhuutam tadeva srijati prabhuuH. Paayatyeshha tapatyeshha varshhatyeshha gabhastibhi. 22
Salutations to the Lord who destroys everything and creates them again. Salutations to Him who by His rays consumes the waters, heats them up and sends them down as rain.
Eshha supteshhu jaagarti bhuuteshhu parinishhthitah. Eshha evaagnihotramcha phalam chaivaagnihotrinaam. 23
Salutations to the Lord who abides in the heart of all beings keeping awake when they are asleep. He is both the sacrificial fire and the fruit enjoyed by the worshippers.
Vedaashcha kratavashchaiva kratuunaam phalameva cha. Yaani krityaani lokeshhu sarva eshha ravih prabhu. 24
The Sun is verily the Lord of all action in this universe. He is verily the vedas, the sacrifices mentioned in them and the fruits obtained by performing the sacrifices.
Phala stuti
Enamaapatsu krichchhreshhu kaantaareshhu bhayeshhu cha.kiirttayanh purushhah kashchin naavasiidati raaghav. 25
Raghava, one who recites this hymn in times of danger, during an affliction or when lost in the wilderness and having fear, he will not lose heart (and become brave).
Puujayasvainamekaagro devadevam jagathpatimh. Etat.h trigunitam japtvaa yuddheshhu vijayishhyas. 26
Raghava, worship this Lord of all Gods and the Universe with one-pointed devotion. Recite this hymn thrice and you will win this battle.
Asminkshane mahaabaaho raavanam tvam vadhishhyasi. Evamuktavaa tadaa.agastyo jagaama cha yathaagatam. 27
O mighty armed one, you shall truimph over Ravana this very moment. Having spoken this, Agastya returned his original place. Raghava became free from worry after hearing this.
Etachchhritvaa mahaatejaa nashhtashoko abhavattadaa. Dhaarayaamaasa supriito raaghavah prayataatmavaan. 28
He was greatly pleased and became brave and energetic.
Aaadityam prekshya japtvaa tu param harshhamavaaptavaanh. Triraachamya shuchirbhuutvaa dhanuraadaaya viiryavaan. 29
Gazing at the sun with devotion, He recited this hymn thrice and experienced bliss.
Rraavanam prekshya hrushhtaatmaa yuddhaaya samupaagamath. Sarva yatnena mahataa vadhe tasya dhritoabhavat. 30
Purifying Himself by sipping water thrice, He took up His bow with His mighty arms. Seeing Ravana coming to fight, He put forth all his effort with a determination to destroy Ravana.
Atha ravi ravadanam nirikshyam raama Muditamanaah paramam prahrishhyamaanahNishicharapatisa nkshayam viditvaa Suragan amadhyagato vachastvaret. 31
Bhano Bhaskara marthanda, shanka Rashmi Divakara
Ayur Arogya,aiswaryam, sreeyam putram shatboyehene
Then knowing that the destruction of the lord of prowlers at night (Ravana) was near, Aditya, who was at the center of the assembly of the Gods, looked at Rama and exclaimed 'Hurry up' with great delight. [2]

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6. Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation)'''

''By Srivatsa Ramaswami''

Sun Worship/ Salutation has been an important aspect of daily routine of many people in India from the Vedic times. It is one of the six accepted and orthodox forms of worship. But unlike other well known sects of worship like of Siva, Vishnu, Sakti, Ganesa or Kartikeya, which are done in temples and homes usually with icons/idols, the Sun Worship is done in the open during the day time. “Worship the Sun for Health” exhorts the Vedas. (Aarogyam Bhaskaraath iccheth). Thousands of people can be seen saluting the sun at dawn at noon and at dusk, facing respectively the East, North and West, with or without mantras. Some worship the Sun with Mantras alone and some do namaskara or salutation alone without the mantras in several ways.

The physical--alone namaskara usually is made up of a start from standing position, prostrate with the arms stretched forward, then return to the starting position. This is known as danda samarpanam and is perhaps the most common method of physical form of Sun Salutation. The more elaborate method of Surya Namaskara usually involves twelve steps which include some asana like tadasana (mounting pose), uttanasana (forward bend), the dog poses. In the vinyasa karma as taught by my Guru, Sri Krishnamacharya, it involves 12 steps done in a sequence, starting from Tadasana and traversing through asanas like uttanasana, utkatasana, caturanga dandasana, dand samarpana, urdhwa and adhomukha swanasana and returning to tadasana via utkatasana and uttanasana. Further all the movements are done with synchronized breathing. It is detailed in my book “The Complete Book of Vinyasa Yoga (Pages 213 to 217).

The Mantra worship of the Sun is more prevalent in India. As mentioned earlier, many thousands of Indians do pray to the Sun with several Sun Mantras including prominently the Gayatri mantra—usually 108  times in the morning, 32 times at noon and 64 times at around dusk. Or they may use 12 mantras each at the end of the 12 vinyasas.  These dwadasa (12) mantras could be seed or Bijakshara mantras, loukika(common) mantras of the sun or, 12 vedic mantras or a combination of all the three. Please refer to my book, “The Complete Book of Vinyasa Yoga”. Persons who do the danda samarpana may do it 12 times, saying the 12 mantras at the end of each of the 12 salutations to the sun. There is a stanza from the Vedas which is a prayer to the sun to cure the worshipper from heart and skin ailments, which may be done with or without physical mantras.

The Yajur veda, the veda Sri Krishnamacharya was affiliated to (so am I) consists of about 81 chapters or prapatakas. Each section or chapter (prapataka) may run from about 10 minutes to up to an hour, but average about half an hour. One of them is called Surya Namaskara or Sun Salutation. Made of 132 paragraphs in 32 anuvakas (sections), it is said to be the longest chapter in this Veda. It takes a little over one hour to chant//recite this mantra portion. I had the privilege of learning and then chanting this Aruna Parayana  every Sunday morning for several years with my Guru Sri Krishnamacharya. Towards the end of his life , I chanted this Surya namaskara mantra with him for several days. It is said that in the olden days, many sick or even terminally ill people would be brought to a public place like the corridors of the temples, where Vedic Pundits will chant these surya namaskara mantras to let them listen to these mantras and do physical namaskara if possible. My Guru once told me that in Mysore where he was with the Maharaja of Mysore, he along with some of his students would walk along the streets of Mysore chanting these mantras so that those who were too sick to come out and were confined to their homes would listen to a few of these mantra chants. Even now in India, these mantras are chanted every Sunday by several Indians singly or in groups at homes and at public places like temples. As mentioned this section of Sun Salutation is called Aruna, a name for Sun meaning one who is without any debts. Sun gives to everyone, for the entire universe, warmth, light, health and controls the weather and lets wind flow, and rain, vegetation etc. Even as it gives, it takes nothing from others, hence it is called ‘Aruna’ the unindebted.

This Surya Namskara starts and ends with a peace Invocation. A free translation of the peace chant is as follows.

“Oh Divine Ones (Devas), let us hear auspicious sounds and news with our ears. Let us, the worshippers (of the Sun) see auspicious things. For firm limbs and healthy bodies let us pray to the gods (of nature). Let us live a full life pleasing the gods of nature (consistent with nature). May the Lord Almighty, give us welfare. May the Sun, the knower of all, give us health. Let the majestic Garuda protect us (from diseases and poisons). Let Brihaspati, the Universal Lord, bestow welfare on us.”

Here is a brief summary of the 32 sections

1.The gods who control the different aspects of nature like rain, wind, fire, nourishment happiness etc., are praised and their blessings invoked.

2.Description of the Solar System (Surya Mandala) as the ancients saw them built around the effulgent sun. The sun is described as the Father of Time (Kala Purusha)

3-6.  A poetic description of the six seasons (Ritus) and the behavior of people during those seasons.

7.The Vedas say that the sun we see is only one of the eight suns in the universe, the names and characteristics of all the eight suns are described.

8.The ultimate extinction of each life is caused by the sun as he is also the Lord of time. The other types of deaths (called untimely) are subsidiary deaths and are preventable by appropriate methods (like sun salutation)

9.The fire which provides light and heat when the sun has set are also exalted.

10.The two worlds earth and heaven are praised variously

11.Importance of Self Realization and the means (Sun Salutation) are stressed

12.The Ultimate Reality (Indra) is extolled

13.The Three Worlds are described and their causes extolled.

14-19.  Prayer to heavenly bodies like Sun, Wind and others for happiness here and hereafter and the destruction of misery here and hereafter.

20.  Prayer to the guardian angels of all directions for protection.

21.  Prayer to divine and wise beings for the spiritual knowledge.

22.  That everything evolved out of Water (esoterically Consciousness) is described and the  ultimate reality is extolled.

23.  Water (Consciousness) is the source of all activity. And the Creator is extolled.

24-26.  Sun Worship and the benefits are described.

27.  Prayer to Sun and other divine beings for health in this life and release from the cycle of birth and death hereafter.

28.  Prayer to Fire, an aspect of Sun’s Energy to ward off evil spirits, especially in the dark.

29.  Prayer to Sun and the divine celestial beings for plentiful of rain.

30.  Prayer to Sun for regaining lost health and rejuvenation.

31.  Prayer to the gastric fire, for health and proper digestion

32.  The do’s and don’ts of Suryanamskara. The three peace utterances end the mantra chant. Then the end peace chant.

The mantras can be chanted alone without physical namaskara, when the chanter at the end of each section mentally salutes the Sun. Else the Surya Namaskara by Danda Samarpana can be performed at the end of each of the 32 anuvakas or sections. Those that are merely listening but not chanting can do one round of the 12 step or 12 vinyqasa Suryanamaskara with the appropriate breathing, and with or without the mantras within the namaskara (Please refer to page 213 to 217 in my book “The Complete Book of Vinyasa Yoga”) may be performed.

*****

7. Ramaswami on chanting with Krishnamacharya

https://groups.google.com/forum/#!searchin/vinyasa-krama-announce/sun$20salutation/vinyasa-krama-announce/x7n27mmCp74/Vkh9zERiZK0J

I studied chanting with  Sri Krishnamacharya for several years. I
think I must have spent over 1500 hrs learning and then chanting with
him. It was a great experience listening to his chants and also
chanting with him long passages like Suryanamaskara or Mahanarayana
Upanishad or Pravargya sometimes running for an hour or more at a
stretch. The otherwise drab chanting appeared to have life and
buoyancy coming from him. While Sri Krishnamacharya is known for his
contribution to Hatayoga especially asanas, his willingness to teach
vedic chanting or svadhyaya as he would call it to those interested,
even breaking the conventional restrictions of vedic chanting, is not
that well known.

On the strength of my learning chanting from Sri Krishnamacharya I was
able to record almost all the vedic chants I had learnt from him.
Suryanamaskara (Arunam) or Sun Salutation was one of his favorites and
one of the most popular chants in South India. It runs for an hour and
in every Teacher Training program I chant this text consisting of 32
sections and the participants  do one Suryanamaskara at the end of the
chanting of each section. It  takes about two hours for the entire
exercise. I have included Varuna Puja along with this in my cd,
chanting of Suryanamaskara. This chant is said to bestow good health
to all those who chant or listen. Sun is the deity for health. One may
consider listening to the chant on Sundays and doing suryanamaskara at
the end of each of the 32 stanzas. It may not be too strenuous as one
rests for two minutes listening to the chants and does one Namaskara
for let us say 1 ½ to 2 mts. This is the first chapter in Taittiriya
Aranyaka.

The second chapter is called swadhyaya chapter and is also known as
Kushmanda Homa. It is contained in my program called “Aditya Hridaya
and Vedic chanting”.  Aditya hridaya is a very famous chant, a loukika
chant which can be chanted by everyone without any restrictions. The
orthodox view is that vedic chanting should be done only by those who
are initiated  by a vedic rite called upanayana but, there are other
chants like in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, the puranas and other later
day works. Aditya hridaym takes hardly  8 mts to chant and it is
recommended that one should do it everyday before undertaking the
day's work. Lord Rama in Ramayana is said to have chanted before the
final assault on Ravana. Kushmanda Homa or the swadhyaya chapter
offers an  encomium to the famous Gayatri mantra and its efficacy. It
is said to remove the blemishes of the mind.
I have also chanted the third chapter of Taittiriya Aranyaka along
with a laukika work called Indrakshi and Siva Kavacha. The vedic
portion is very nice to hear. Indrakshi and sivakavacha are prayers to
Siva and Sakthi and is very popular in the state of Kerala.

****

8. SURYA
June 2013 Newsletter from Srivatsa Ramaswami—


A few months back I wrote about some procedures Patanjali recommends for keeping the mind clear called citta prasadana. A few more well established procedures of yester-years were also included by Patanjali in Chapter I. One of them is “yeta abhimata dhyanad va”. It would be translated as 'meditating as per one's likes (abhimata)'. Sankara while writing the vivarana or elucidation on this sutra cautions the abhyasi to choose an object that is agreeable/uplifting but not a pleasurable object. Conventionally the object of meditation should be something ennobling. One definition of Yoga following the 'union' school is that yoga is union with a higher principle, like God or paramatma. Even though Vyasa's commentary is highly respected and followed by several expert commentators like Vacaspai Misra Sankaracharya, Vignyana Bikshu and others, there were a few like Bhoja who demurred and preferred to write a completely independent commentary. Actually Bhoja gave the famous “yogena cittasya..” prayer of Patanjali. There were others like Sadasiva Brahmendra a highly respected advaita vedantin who wrote a brief independent commentary called yoga sudhakara. In this commentary the authoritative, the traditional interpretation of the word 'mata' indicating it as a religion or religious denomination is highlighted (yedyat sastrartham deivam rupam). The word mata is still used in India as religion/denomination. So this sutra would mean that those yogis who have religious inclination could meditate as per one's religion and religious belief to keep the mind clear and under a leash. What are the 'matas' or religious denominations that were prevalent at that time? There were six, viz, ganapatya or worship of Ganesa, Kaumara or worship of his sibling Kartikeya, Sakta, worship of Sakti, Saiva or worship of Siva, Vaishnava or worship of Vishnu and then Saura worship of the pratyaksha devata or the visible deity Sun. In fact Adi Sankara even as he was acclaimed for his elucidation of the Advaita vedanta philosophy is also credited with re establishing the six different forms of worship called the shan-matas or six schools of worship and hence came to be known as shan-mata-stahpana-acarya.

The worship of the six deities can be found in the vedas, then the puranas and extensively elaborated in agamas including temple and personal icon worship in the form of pujas including namaskaras, mantra japas. Almost all the deities have hundreds of temples in India and elsewhere and worshiped as per the agama temple rules. They are also meditated upon by individuals at homes and Patanjali refers to it as abhimata dhyana.

While all deities have temples-- hundreds of them-- the one deity who is conspicuous by the absence of dedicated temples (with a solitary exception in Konark) is Sun. Yes you do not need a temple or icon for the sun. It is called pratyaksha devata or the visible deity. One may say that in the vedas the prime deity venerated is the sun. The worshipers called sun as Aruna, one who is unindebted. It only gives and does not receive from anyone. Sun is is also called a universal friend or Mitra as its light and energy is given to every being for life and nourishment.

Perhaps Sun worship is the most common even now. In the form of Sandhya many salute the sun in a form of a beautiful ritual three times a day at dawn, at noon and at sunset. In that the main portion is the salutations to Sun using the gayatri mantra, believed to be the brainwave of sage Viswamitra (see his story in my earlier newsletter www.vinyasakrama.com/newsletter). It is the most often recited vedic mantra. Freely translated it would mean “ We meditate upon the luster of the orb of the sun which is the effulgence of the Divine (devasya bhargah). May That which we meditate upon remove, the spiritual darkness”. There are also other sun mantras included in the ritual. Sun Salutation is associated with health and good eyesight. “Arogyam bhaskaraat iccheh” Health is the blessing of Sun. There is also an upanishad which is about sun called “akshi upanishad” or upanishad about eye. Sun worship will bring longevity, good physical and mental health and prevent untimely death (apamrityu). There is also a vedic mantra which implores Sun to remove the heart ailment one may suffer from (hridrogam mama surya, harimanancha nasaya)
Some mantras from the daily routine are quoted below

Mantra: (Morning)

Aum Mitrasya carshani dhrutah sravo devasya sãnasim. Satyam citrasravastamam. Mitro jannan yãtayati prajãnan. Mitro dãdhãra prthiveemutadyãm. Mitrah krishti-ranimishãbhichasthe, satyãya havyam ghrtavadvidhema. Pra sa mitra marto astu prayasvãn yasta ãditya sikshati vratena. Na hanyate, na jiyate tvoto nenam amho asnotyantio na doorãt.

Meaning

Standing facing the same direction in which the japa is done usually east, join the palms and salute the Paramãtman, Who is shining in the center of the rising Sun.

“I meditate on the glory and fame of the all-protecting Sun Who is adorable, eternal and fascinating the hearts of all listeners.

The Sun guides all, knowing everything. He supports the earth and the sky. He watches all creation unwieldy. To Him we offer cooked rice soaked in ghee for attaining eternal fruits.

O Sun Who is Mitra (universal friend), may the one who longs to worship You sincerely, get the full benefit of righteousness. One protected by You will not suffer from any disease; sin will not approach him from far or near.”

Mantra: (Madhyanhe/Noon)

Ãsatyena rajasã vartamãno nivesayannamrutam martyam cha. Hiranyayena savitã rathenã devo yãti bhuvanã vipasyan.

Udvayam tamasaspari pasyantho jyotiruttaram. Devam devatrã sooryamaganma jyotiruttamam. Udutyam jãtavedasam devam vahanti ketavah. Drise visvãya Sooryam.

Citram devãnãmudagãdaneekam chakshurmitrasya varunasyãgneh. Ã prã dyãvã prithivee antariksham Soorya ãtmã jagatastasthushascha. Tachakshur devahitam purastãchukramucharatu.

Pashyema saradas-satam; jeevema saradas-satam; nandãma saradas-satam; modãma saradas-satam; bhavãma saradas-satam; srunavãma saradas-satam; prabravãma saradas-satam; ajeetãsyãma saradas-satam; ( jyok cha Sooryam drishe.)

Ya udagãnmahato arnavãd vibhrãjamãnah sarirasya madhyãt samã vrushabho lohitãksha-Sooryo vipashchin manasã punãtu.

Meaning:

Standing facing the North, joining the palms in anjali mudra and saluting the Paramãtman shining in the center of the Sun Who is now glowing above the head at noon time.

“The Sun riding a golden chariot goes round scrutinizing all the worlds and shining with self-effulgence and directing by means of His radiance,gods and humans in their respective tasks. The Sun rises swallowing darkness, with great splendor, protecting the celestial beings also. We who gaze at the Sun rays (light) shall attain the great radiance of the Self.

For overseeing the worlds, it rides the horses (of the Sun) in the form of His rays. Bear Him, the God Who knows everything.

Up rises the Sun who is like an eye to Mitra Varuna, and Agni, and Who is of the form of all the divine ones. He the Lord of all moving and unmoving things pervades the heavens, the earth and the middle regions.

May we see and adore for a hundred years that splendid orb of the Sun which rises in the East and looks after the welfare of the celestial and other beings like an eye. May we live thus for a hundred years. May we rejoice with our kith and kin for a hundred years. May we speak sweetly for a hundred years. May we live for a hundred years undefeated by the forces of evil. We desire to enjoy gazing at the Sun (seeing with the sunlight) for a hundred years.

May my whole mind be sanctified by the Sun Who bestows upon us all our needs, Whose eyes are red, Who is omniscient and Who rises from amidst the waters of the ocean illuminating all the quarters.”

Another important sun worship mantras comes from the famous Valmiki Ramayana. It is said to be the gift of sage Agastya to Lord Rama just prior to Rama's battle with Ravana. It is known as “Aditya Hridyam” or “Sun in the Heart” Perhaps next only to the Gayatri this mantra is recited regularly by many early in the morning.

As mentioned earlier Sun Worship/ Salutation has been an important aspect of daily routine of many people in India from the Vedic times. It is one of the six accepted and orthodox forms of worship. But unlike other well known sects of worship like of Siva, Vishnu, Sakti, Ganesa or Kartikeya, which are done in temples and homes usually with icons/idols, the Sun Worship is done usually in the open during the day time. “Worship the Sun for Health” exhorts the Vedas. (Aarogyam Bhaskaraath iccheth). Thousands of people can be seen saluting the sun at dawn at noon and at dusk, facing respectively the East, North and West, with or without mantras. Some worship the Sun with Mantras alone and some do namaskara or salutation alone without the mantras in several ways.

The physical--alone namaskara usually is made up of a start from standing position, prostrate with the arms stretched forward, then return to the starting position. This is known as danda samarpanam and is perhaps the most common method of physical form of Sun Salutation. The more elaborate method of Surya Namaskara usually involves twelve steps which include some asana like tadasana (mountain pose), uttanasana (forward bend), the dog poses. In the vinyasa karma as taught by my Guru, Sri Krishnamacharya, it involves 12 steps done in a sequence, starting from Tadasana and traversing through asanas like uttanasana, utkatasana, caturanga dandasana, dand samarpana, urdhwa and adhomukha swanasana and returning to tadasana via utkatasana and uttanasana. Further all the movements are done with synchronized breathing. It is detailed in my book “The Complete Book of Vinyasa Yoga (Pages 213 to 217).

The Mantra worship of the Sun is more prevalent in India. As mentioned earlier, many thousands of Indians do pray to the Sun with several Sun Mantras including prominently the Gayatri mantra—usually 108 times in the morning, 32 times at noon and 64 times at around dusk. Or they may use 12 mantras each at the end of the 12 vinyasas. These dvadasa (12) mantras could be seed or Bijakshara mantras, loukika(common) mantras of the sun or, 12 vedic mantras or a combination of all the three. Please refer to my book, “The Complete Book of Vinyasa Yoga”. Persons who do the danda samarpana may do it 12 times, saying the 12 mantras at the end of each of the 12 salutations to the sun. There is a stanza from the Vedas, mentioned earlier, which is a prayer to the sun to cure the worshipper from heart and skin ailments, which may be done with or without physical mantras.

The Yajur veda, the veda Sri Krishnamacharya was affiliated to (so am I) consists of 81 chapters or prapatakas. Each section or chapter (prapataka) may run from about 10 minutes to up to an hour, but average about half an hour. One of them is called Surya Namaskara or Sun Salutation. Made of 132 paragraphs in 32 anuvakas (sections), it is said to be the longest chapter (paragraph wise) in this Veda. It takes a little over one hour to chant/recite this mantra portion. I had the privilege of learning and then chanting this Aruna Parayana every Sunday morning for several years with my Guru Sri Krishnamacharya. Towards the end of his life , I chanted this Surya namaskara mantra with him for several days. It is said that in the olden days, many sick or even terminally ill people would be brought to a public place like the corridors of the temples, where Vedic Pundits will chant these surya namaskara mantras to let them listen to these mantras and do physical namaskara if possible. My Guru once told me that in Mysore where he was with the Maharaja of Mysore, he along with some of his students would walk along the streets of Mysore chanting these mantras so that those who were too sick to come out and were confined to their homes would listen to a few of these mantra chants. Even now in India, these mantras are chanted every Sunday by several Indians singly or in groups at homes and at public places like temples. As mentioned this section of Sun Salutation is called Aruna, a name for Sun meaning one who is without any debts. Sun gives to everyone, for the entire universe, warmth, light, health and controls the weather and lets wind flow, and rain, vegetation etc. Even as it gives, it takes nothing from others, hence it is called ‘Aruna’ the unindebted.

This Surya Namskara starts and ends with a peace Invocation. A free translation of the peace chant is as follows. “Oh Divine Ones (Devas), let us hear auspicious sounds and news with our ears. Let us, the worshippers (of the Sun) see auspicious things. For firm limbs and healthy bodies let us pray to the gods (of nature). Let us live a full life pleasing the gods of nature (consistent with nature). May the Lord Almighty, give us welfare. May the Sun, the knower of all, give us health. Let the majestic Garuda protect us (from diseases and poisons). Let Brihaspati, the Universal Lord, bestow welfare on us.”

Here is a brief summary of the 32 sections

1.The gods who control the different aspects of nature like rain, wind, fire, nourishment happiness etc., are praised and their blessings invoked. 2.Description of the Solar System (Surya Mandala) as the ancients saw them built around the effulgent sun. The sun is described as the Father of Time (Kala Purusha) 3-6. A poetic description of the six seasons (Ritus) and the behavior of people during those seasons. 7.The Vedas say that the sun we see is only one of the eight suns in the universe, the names and characteristics of all the eight suns are described.8.The ultimate extinction of each life is caused by the sun as he is also the Lord of time. The other types of deaths (called untimely) are subsidiary deaths and are preventable by appropriate methods (like sun salutation) 9.The fire which provides light and heat when the sun has set are also exalted. 10.The two worlds earth and heaven are praised variously 11.Importance of Self Realization and the means (Sun Salutation) are stressed 12.The Ultimate Reality (Indra) is extolled 13.The Three Worlds are described and their causes extolled. 14-19. Prayer to heavenly bodies like Sun, Wind and others for happiness here and hereafter and the destruction of misery here and hereafter. 20. Prayer to the guardian angels of all directions for protection.21. Prayer to divine and wise beings for the spiritual knowledge. 22. That everything evolved out of Water (esoterically Consciousness) is described and the ultimate reality is extolled. 23. Water (Consciousness) is the source of all activity. And the Creator is extolled. 24-26. Sun Worship and the benefits are described. 27. Prayer to Sun and other divine beings for health in this life and release from the cycle of birth and death hereafter. 28. Prayer to Fire, an aspect of Sun’s Energy to ward off evil spirits, especially in the dark. 29. Prayer to Sun and the divine celestial beings for plentiful of rain. 30. Prayer to Sun for regaining lost health and rejuvenation. 31. Prayer to the gastric fire, for health and proper digestion 32. The do’s and don’ts of Suryanamskara. The three peace utterances end the mantra chant. Then the end peace chant.

The mantras can be chanted alone without physical namaskara, when the chanter at the end of each section mentally salutes the Sun. One may hold the hands in Anjali Mudra and say the mnatra prayer as follows

“Sri Chaya Suvarchalamba sameta Sri Surya Narayana Swamine Namh. Om Namo Narayanaya”.

It may be followed by a danda samarpana from the seated position and return to the seated position and chant the next section. Else one may stand up at the end of each of the 32 sections, to samasthiti and do the complete surya namaskara with individual mantras at the end of each vinyasas. I have done this in all my Teacher training programs and at some places like Austin, Houston , UK. Else the Surya Namaskara by Danda Samarpana can be performed at the end of each of the 32 anuvakas or sections. Those that are merely listening but not chanting can do one round of the 12 step or 12 vinyasa Suryanamaskara with the appropriate breathing, and with or without the mantras within the namaskara (Please refer to page 213 to 217 in my book “The Complete Book of Vinyasa Yoga”) may be performed. Please also see the attchment to this post. It contains a Suryanamaskara chart based on the above with vinyasas and mantras and suggested breathing along with beautiful sketchs of the vinyasas. This was designed by my friend Steve Brandon of Harmony Yoga , Wells, UK and the sketches are by Charles Cox.(See the attachment to this post)

Contemporary Surya Namaskara has tended to be an entirely physical exercise. Surya Namaskara is “Bowing to Sun”. Many times it is done without sparing a thought to the sun and is done as just a nother piece of involved physical exercise. One can atleast think of the sun, empathise with gratitude for all that one gets from Sun in particular and Nature in general. Further it is supposed to be done only during daytime. One also has to keep in mind that sun salutation should not be strenuous as both Hatayoga and Rajayoga warn us againt straining and causing pain to ourselves (kaya klesa) while doing yoga. Yoga sutra says asanas should be comfortable (sukha) and Hatayogis say that a yogi should avoid painful exercises like weight lifting and too many strenuous Suryanamaskaras.

I have recorded about 40 audio cassettes and cds of several Vedic and other chants I had learnt from Sri Krishnamacharya (including Suryanamaskara/Aruna Parayana)and others for a leading recording company in South India. The Surya Namaskara chants running to about 60 minutes was recorded in mid 80s. I also have a recording of Aditya Hridayam mentioned earlier and the entire Sandhyavandana also produced during th 1980s. These ar available with the producers of these cd The Master Recording Company under the brand name Sangeetha in Chennai India. And Namarupa magazine published my aricle on Sandhyavandana (salutation to the sun at dawn, noon and dusk)with pictures and mantras.

We express a sense of gratitude to someone who has helped us. We may also have the same sense of gratitude and say a thank you to different aspects of nature like water, wind and earth and of course Sun. The vedic Rishis glorified the different aspects of nature as gods especially Sun.
Sincerely
Srivatsa Ramaswami

**********

9. Surya Namaskara History

Surya Namaskara (IPA: [suːrjɐ nɐmɐskɐːrɐ]IASTSūrya Namaskāra) also known in English as Sun Salutation (lit. "salute to the sun") is a common sequence of asanas. Its origins lie in India where its large Hindu population worships Surya, the Hindu solar deity. This sequence of movements and asanas can be practised on varying levels of awareness, ranging from that of physical exercise in various styles, to a complete sadhana which incorporates asanapranayamamantra and chakra meditation. It is often the beginning vinyasa within a longer yoga series. Sūrya Namaskāra may also refer to other styles of "Salutations to the Sun".

History

Ancient

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the oldest known hatha yoga text does not mention "Sun Salutations" but mentions a sūrya-bhedana (sun-piercing) kumbhaka (II, 44 and 48-50)[2][3] while the Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā mentions sūrya-bheda kumbhaka (58-59).[4] The oldest documented book with clear depictions of asanas is the Sritattvanidhi, though there is no mention of "Sun Salutations" in the text, it does describe the asanas "Sarpasana" (Bhujangasana), "Gajasana" (Adhomukh Swannasan), "Uttanasana" and series of asanas done in tandem, similar to Sūrya Namaskāra.[5][page needed].

Mysore

Incidentally the translator of the ancient Sritattvanidhi., Krishnaraja Wodeyar III, was also responsible for arranging for Sri. T. Krishnamacharya to teach yoga at Yogaśālā in Mysore sometime around 1930.[6] Sri. T. Krishnamacharya's teachings are largely responsible for the modern version of Sūrya Namaskāra as seen in modern day Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga and the Visesha Vinyasa Sun Salutation subroutine from Vinyasa Krama Yoga,[7] as well as a host of other popular forms of yoga.[8] K. Pattabhi Jois claims to have taught exactly as he had learned from Krishnamacharya,[9] though other than personal testimony, there seems to be no other evidence as to the precise content of Krishnamacharya's teachings.[10] While Krishnamacharya's specific sources for his yoga teachings are unclear, it is said that he learned from Sri Ramamohana Brahmachari in the Himilayan Mountains (perhaps Muktinath where his son has visited ,[11] but certainly somewhere near the Gandaki River in Nepal) beginning in 1916[12];[13] however, the source of his teaching (at the Mysore Yogashala or otherwise) is not otherwise documented. Krishnamacharya's son attests to his father having developed some of his teachings himself.[14]There is the possibility that he may have been influenced by the Mysore Palace Gymnastics Tradition.[15]

Raja of Aundh

Another indication as to the origins of Sūrya Namaskāra is the 1928 Indian publication of "The Ten Point Way of Health"[16] by Raja Bhavan Rao Srinivas ("Bala Sahib"), Pant Pratinidhi of Aundh (1868–1951; Raja of Aundh 1909-1947),[17] followed by later publication in England in 1938.[18] The Raja claims to have practiced the series as a child. And some sources report that only after extensive practice and analysis (and potentially modification) himself did he finally publish the book.[19]Thus, the true origin of the series remains unclear, though it has to be noted that Raja of Aundh, himself never claimed to have invented Surya Namaskar. Further he actually stressed on the ancient origins of this procedure.[20] He helped in popularizing surya namaskar as a simple physical exercise for all round development of an individual in India. He introduced it in schools as a form of education and encouraged even the ordinary man to be physically fit by performing surya namaskar every day.[20][21] Still, how exactly Sūrya Namaskāra came to be included in the yogic practices of Hatha and Ashtanga Yoga remains unclear.[22]

Other references

Other sources which cite early use of "Sun Salutations" are A Short History of Aryan Medical Science from 1896, which claims that in India "there are various kinds of physical exercise indoors and outdoors. But some of the Hindus set aside a portion of their daily worship for making salutations to the Sun by prostrations. This method of adoration affords them so much muscular activity that it takes to some extent the place of physical exercise".[23]
Early English publications record some ancient methods of sun salutation; however, the do not seem to be related to the modern Sūrya Namaskāra as seen in Yoga practice today. In "A Catalogue raisonnée [sic] of oriental manuscripts",[24] noted that a short book with 71 leaves with "Tricha calpa vidhi" from "Aditya Puranam" was preserved. He describes the vidhi as "Modes of rendering homage to Sun, with praise and spells; the object being health or delivery from disease". He further notes the presence of Arghya Pradana, Surya Stotaram, Aditya dvadasa namam - 12 names of the Sun according to the monthly signs of zodiac, Surya Narayana cavacham, Saurashtacshari mantram, and many other elaborate rituals as the part of the vidhi. In Page 148 of the same book he describes a shorter version called "Laghu tricha kalpa vidhi".
Historically it is widely believed in the state of Maharashtra that Shivaji Maharaj, Sage Samarth Ramdas and the Marathas have performed Sūrya Namaskāra as a physical exercise to develop able bodies.[25] This may be related to vyayama ("physical exercise" in Sanskrit) being traditionally influenced by spirituality. Many physical practices have ingrained spiritual values in them. In addition spiritual training is considered as a part of physical training from ancient times in India.[citation needed]

Valmiki Ramayana

Aditya Hridayam[26][27] is another ancient practice which involves a variation of Sūrya Namaskāra. It is a procedure of saluting The Sun, taught to Sri Rama by Sage Agastya, before his fight with Ravana. It is described in the "Yuddha Kaanda" Canto 107 of Ramayana.
  • Surya Namaskara, like most asanas, is recommended to be performed on an empty stomach. Therefore some recommend a gap of at least two hours after eating and before performing the namaskara. It is generally practiced in the morning before breakfast or in evening.[28]
  • Shavasana is practiced at the end of practice for rest.
  • Pranayama is synchronized with asanas.
  • Mantras can be pronounced at the start of each Surya namaskara. Bījas (seeds) or the 12 mantras specific to each asana can also be chanted while performing each asana. The 12 specific mantras, though, repeated mentally instead.
  • Chakras are points-of-focus, when performing asanas.
  • There are a total of 8 different asanas in the sequence of the 12 asana changes of Surya namaskara. Some asanas are repeated twice in the same cycle of a Surya Namaskara.
  • In a traditional Hindu context, Surya Namaskara is performed facing in the direction of the rising (east) or setting (west) sun.
  • According to the scriptures one who performs the Surya Namaskaras daily does not get poor in a thousand births.
  • There are 5 ways in which breathing should be done during Surya Namaskar.
The following lists Surya Namasakar A. Other variations including Surya Namasakar B exist.

Mantras

12 Surya Namasakras are practised per cycle.
In the table, the following first 12 mantras corresponds to the 12 asanas in Surya Namasakara and can also be chanted or repeated mentally during the performance of each corresponding asana.[29][30] They can also be pronounced at Pranamasana.
SalutationSanskritTransliteration
1ॐ मित्राय नमःom mitrāya namaḥ
2ॐ रवये नमःom ravaye namaḥ
3ॐ सूर्याय नमःom sūryāya namaḥ
4ॐ भानवे नमःom bhānave namaḥ
5ॐ खगाय नमःom khagāya namaḥ
6ॐ पूष्णे नमःom pūṣṇe namaḥ
7ॐ हिरण्यगर्भाय नमःom hiraṇya garbhāya namaḥ
8ॐ मरीचये नमःom marīcaye namaḥ
9ॐ आदित्याय नमःom ādityāya namaḥ
10ॐ सवित्रे नमःom savitre namaḥ
11ॐ अर्काय नमःom arkāya namaḥ
12ॐ भास्कराय नमःom bhāskarāya namaḥ
13ॐ श्रीसवितृसूर्यनारायणाय नमःom śrīsavitṛsūryanārāyaṇāya namaḥ
The following mantra is pronounced at the beginning of a Surya Namaskara cycle:
ॐ ध्येयः सदा सवित्र मण्डल मध्यवर्ती नारायण सरसिजा सनसन्नि विष्टः
केयूरवान मकरकुण्डलवान किरीटी हारी हिरण्मय वपुर धृतशंख चक्रः
om dhyeyaḥ sadā savitra maṇḍala madhyavartī nārāyaṇa sarasijā sanasanni viṣṭaḥ
keyūravāna makarakuṇḍalavāna kirīṭī hārī hiraṇmaya vapura dhṛtaśaṁkha cakraḥ
The following mantra is pronounced at the end of a Surya Namaskara cycle:
आदित्यस्य नमस्कारन् ये कुर्वन्ति दिने दिने
आयुः प्रज्ञा बलम् वीर्यम् तेजस्तेशान् च जायते
ādityasya namaskāran ye kurvanti dine dine
āyuḥ prajñā balam vīryam tejasteśān ca jāyate

For those who salute the sun every day,
life expectancy, conscious, strength, courage and vital power shall grow.

*****

10 Origins of surya namaskar


The Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the oldest known hatha yoga text does not mention “Sun Salutations” but mentions a sūrya-bhedana (sun-piercing) kumbhaka (II, 44 and 48-50) while the Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā mentions sūrya-bheda kumbhaka (58-59). The oldest documented book with clear depictions of asanas is the Sritattvanidhi, though there is no mention of “Sun Salutations” in the text, it does describe the asanas “Sarpasana” (Bhujangasana), “Gajasana” (Adhomukh Swannasan), “Uttanasana” and series of asanas done in tandem, similar to Sūrya Namaskāra.

The translator of the ancient Sritattvanidhi, Krishnaraja Wodeyar III, was also responsible for arranging for Sri. T. Krishnamacharya to teach yoga at Yogaśālā in Mysore sometime around 1930. Sri. T. Krishnamacharya’s teachings are largely responsible for the modern version of Sūrya Namaskāra as seen in modern day Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga and the Visesha Vinyasa Sun Salutation subroutine from Vinyasa Krama Yoga, as well as a host of other popular forms of yoga. K. Pattabhi Jois claims to have taught exactly as he had learned from Krishnamacharya, though other than personal testimony, there seems to be no other evidence as to the precise content of Krishnamacharya’s teachings. While Krishnamacharya’s specific sources for his yoga teachings are unclear, it is said that he learned from Sri Ramamohana Brahmachari in the Himilayan Mountains (perhaps Muktinath where his son has visited, but certainly somewhere near the Gandaki River in Nepal) beginning in 1916; however, the source of his teaching (at the Mysore Yogashala or otherwise) is not otherwise documented. Krishnamacharya’s son attests to his father having developed some of his teachings himself. There is the possibility that he may have been influenced by the Mysore Palace Gymnastics Tradition.

Another indication as to the origins of Sūrya Namaskāra is the 1928 Indian publication of “The Ten Point Way of Health” by Raja Bhavan Rao Srinivas (“Bala Sahib”), Pant Pratinidhi of Aundh (1868–1951; Raja of Aundh 1909-1947), followed by later publication in England in 1938. The Raja claims to have practiced the series as a child. And some sources report that only after extensive practice and analysis (and potentially modification) himself did he finally publish the book. Thus, the true origin of the series remains unclear, though it has to be noted that Raja of Aundh, himself never claimed to have invented Surya Namaskar. Further he actually stressed on the ancient origins of this procedure. He helped in popularizing surya namaskar as a simple physical exercise for all round development of an individual in India. He introduced it in schools as a form of education and encouraged even the ordinary man to be physically fit by performing surya namaskar every day. Still, how exactly Sūrya Namaskāra came to be included in the yogic practices of Hatha and Ashtanga Yoga remains unclear.
Other sources which cite early use of “Sun Salutations” are A Short History of Aryan Medical Science from 1896, which claims that in India “there are various kinds of physical exercise indoors and outdoors. But some of the Hindus set aside a portion of their daily worship for making salutations to the Sun by prostrations. This method of adoration affords them so much muscular activity that it takes to some extent the place of physical exercise”.

Early English publications record some ancient methods of sun salutation; however, the do not seem to be related to the modern Sūrya Namaskāra as seen in Yoga practice today. In “A Catalogue raisonnée [sic] of oriental manuscripts”, noted that a short book with 71 leaves with “Tricha calpa vidhi” from “Aditya Puranam” was preserved. He describes the vidhi as “Modes of rendering homage to Sun, with praise and spells; the object being health or delivery from disease”. He further notes the presence of Arghya Pradana, Surya Stotaram, Aditya dvadasa namam – 12 names of the Sun according to the monthly signs of zodiac, Surya Narayana cavacham, Saurashtacshari mantram, and many other elaborate rituals as the part of the vidhi. In Page 148 of the same book he describes a shorter version called “Laghu tricha kalpa vidhi”.

Aditya Hridayam is another ancient practice which involves a variation of Sūrya Namaskāra. It is a procedure of saluting The Sun, taught to Sri Rama by Sage Agastya, before his fight with Ravana. It is described in the “Yuddha Kaanda” Canto 107 of Ramayana.

There are numerous references of praising the Sun for the purpose of good health and prosperity, in Vedas. Some of these Vedic hymns were incorporated into Nitya Vidhi (Daily mandatory routine for a Hindu) for the well being of an individual, through salutations to the Sun. These daily procedures were termed as Surya Namaskara (literally translates as “sun salutations”). Physical prostration to Sun, showing complete surrender of oneself to God, is the main aspect of these procedures. The forms of Surya Namaskar practiced vary from region to region. Two such popular practices are Trucha Kalpa Namaskarah and Aditya Prasna.
Excerpt From Wikipedia Articles, Surya Namaskar and  Surya Namaskar Origins
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******

11 Surynamaskara origins

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Vedic origins[edit]

There are numerous references of praising the Sun for the purpose of good health and prosperity, in Vedas. Some of these Vedic hymns were incorporated into Nitya Vidhi (Daily mandatory routine for a Hindu) for the well being of an individual, through salutations to the Sun. These daily procedures were termed as Surya Namaskara (literally translates as "sun salutations"). Physical prostration to Sun, showing complete surrender of oneself to God, is the main aspect of these procedures. The forms of Surya Namaskar practiced vary from region to region. Two such popular practices are Trucha Kalpa Namaskarah and Aditya Prasna, discussed below.

Trucha Kalpa Namaskarah[edit]

Trucha Kalpa Namaskarah has its origins in Rig Veda.[1] Each Mantra in Veda is called a “rucha”. Group of three rucha is called as Trucha. “Trucha Kalpa Namaskarah” is a method of performing Surya Namaskar using three ruchas from the Veda.

Sankalp[edit]

You make a resolution[Sankalp] in the beginning, that you are doing this act of performing ‘sūrya namaskār’ by praying to the Sun, requesting him to give you good health and strength to work hard.

dhyāna mantra[edit]

Then dhyāna mantra is recited / chanted.
Verse: ॐ ध्येयः सदा सवित्र मण्डल मध्यवर्ती नारायण सरसिजा सनसन्नि विष्टः केयूरवान मकरकुण्डलवान किरीटी हारी हिरण्मय वपुर धृतशंख चक्रः
dhyeyḥ sadā savitṛmaṁḍalamadhyavartī
nārāyaṇaḥ sarasijāsanasaṁniviṣṭaḥ |
keyūravān makarakuṁḍalavān kirīṭī
hārīhirṇmayavapurdhṛtaśaṁkhacakraḥ ||
Meaning:
“Always worship ‘The Sun’ (our energy source) sitting at the centre of the solar system (savitra mamdal madhyavarti) on Lotus, wearing Keyoor, Makarkundal crown and holding conch, chakra and having glittering golden body.”

sūrya namaskār mantra[edit]

After dhyāna mantra, Surya Namaskars are performed by chanting mantras. Mantras are arranged in a specific way. They consist of the three ruchas taken from 1st Mandala, 9th anuvak 50th Sookta in Rig Veda, which are composed in ‘Anushtup Chandas ’. Kanva Sage [Rushi] is believed to have composed them.
Meaning of the three ruchas:
“O, radiant Sun rising in the sky, please destroy the disease in my heart as well as diseases of my external body. Let inner and outer diseases of my body be destroyed by brilliantly shining Sun-the son of Aditi.”
Nama mantra of the Surya Namaskar have four sections:
  1. Pranavakshar (Aum)
  2. Beejakshara (hrāṁ, hrīṁ, hrūṁ, hraiṁ, hrāuṁ and hraḥ)
  3. paada from the three ruchas described above
  4. Name of ‘The Sun’.
In total 6 beejakshara, 12 paada (4 paada for each of the 3 ruchas) and 12 names of Surya are used in the creation of nama mantras. The six beejaksharas in the order of their usage are, hrāṁ, hrīṁ, hrūṁ, hraiṁ, hrāuṁ and hraḥ. The 12 paada are explained in detail in the glossary. The 12 names of ‘The Sun’ in the order of their usage are “Mitra, Ravi, Surya, Bhanu, Khaga, PushanHiranyagarbhaMarichimanAdityaSavitr, Arka, Bhaskara”.
The mantra, start with short arrangements of the words at the beginning of the worship and evolve into more complex structures near the end. The mantra for the ease of discussion can be classified into four steps.
Step 1:
"Aum + 1 Beejaksharam + 1 rucha + 1 Beejaksharam + Aum + 1 Name of Sun"
Example Mantra:
1) Aum hrāṁ udhyannadhya mitramaḥ hrāṁ Aum mitrāya namaḥ || 2) Aum hrīṁ ārohannuttarāṁ divam hrīṁ Aum ravaye namaḥ ||
12 mantra, formed using the 12 paada of the ruchas, are chanted / recited at this step. As there are only 6 beejakshara, for the seventh mantra the first beejakshara is used and the order is repeated up to the 12th mantra. For each mantra one surya namaskar is performed.
Step 2:
"Aum + 2 Beejakshara + 2 paada + 2 Beejakshara + Aum + 2 Names of Sun"
Example Mantra:
"Aum hrāṁ hrīṁ udhyannadhya mitramaḥ ārohannuttarāṁ divam hrāṁ hrīṁ Aum mitrāya ravaye namaḥ ||".
6 mantras are chanted / recited at this step as there are 12 paadas. For each mantra one surya namaskar is performed.
Step 3:
"Aum + 4 Beejakshara + 4 paada + 4 Beejakshara + Aum + 4 Names of Sun"
3 mantras are chanted / recited at this stage. For each mantra one surya namaskar is performed.
Step 4:
"Aum + All Beejakshara + All paadas + All Beejakshara + Aum + All Names of Sun"
1 mantra is chanted / recited at this step. One Surya Namaskar is performed at this step.
Thus after all the four steps, 22 mantras are chanted / recited and with each mantra one Surya Namaskar is performed. When this cycle is repeated three times, 66 Surya Namaskars are performed. This way ONE Trucha Kalpa Namaskar is completed.

Teertha Shloka[edit]

In the end, Teertha Shloka is chanted / recited.
Verse:
आदित्यस्य नमस्कारन् ये कुर्वन्ति दिने दिने |
जन्मान्तरसहस्रेषु दारिद्र्यं नोपजायते ||
अकाल् म्रूत्यूहरणं सर्व व्याधिविनाशनम |
सूर्य पादोदकं तीर्थ जठरे धारयाम्यहम ||
अनेन नमस्काराख्येन कर्मगा श्रीसवितृसूर्यनारायण: प्रीयताम ||
ādityasya namaskaraṁ ye kurvanti dinedine |
janmāṁ tarasahasre ṣudaridhryaṁ nopajāyate ||
akālamṛtyuharaṇm sarvavyādhivinaśanam |
sūryapādodakaṁ tīrtham jaṭharedhārayāmyaham ||
anen namaskarakhyen karmaga shrisavitrusuryanarayan priyataam ||
Meaning:
Those who perform Soorya Namaskars daily, do not face poverty in life [this actually relates to Richness of Health, not financial matters[citation needed]], one does not face early death or suffer from diseases. Drink the water kept before The Sun.
In some versions of this mantra सूर्य Surya in the second verse is replaced by विष्णो Vishnu. It is recited while taking Tirth [Holy Water] after doing Surya Namaskar. This is the most commonly followed Mantra by practitioners of Surya Namaskar.
आदित्यस्य नमस्कारन् ये कुर्वन्ति दिने दिने |
आयुः प्रज्ञा बलम् वीर्यम् तेजस्तेशान् च जायते ||
ādityasya namaskāran ye kurvanti dine dine |
āyuḥ prajñā balam vīryam tejasteśān ca jāyate ||
Yet another version of the same mantra, dedicated to Vishnu or Narayan is as follows:
अकाल् म्रूत्यूहरणं सर्व व्याधिविनाशनम |
विष्णो पादोदकम तीर्थ जठरे धारयाम्यहम ||
शरीरे जर्जरीभूते व्याधीग्रस्ते कलेवरे |
औषधम जान्हवीतोयम वैद्यो नारायाणो हरी ||
akal mrityuharan sarva vyadhivinasham |
vishnu paadodak tirth jatre dharyamyham ||
shirire jarjribhute vyadhigraste kalevare |
aushdham jhanvhitoyam vaidho narayano hari ||

Aditya Prasna[edit]

The verses used in Aditya Prasna are taken from the first chapter of "Yajur Veda, Taittiriya Aranyakam", which is also referred to as Surya namaskara chapter. It is popularly practiced in South India. There are 132 anuvaks in this chapter and it is a practice to recite perform sun salutations with prostrations after recitation of every anuvak.

Puranic origins[edit]

Aditya Hridayam [2][3] is another ancient practice which involves surya namaskar. It is a procedure of saluting The Sun, taught to Sri Rama by Sage Agastya, before his fight with Ravana. It is described in the "Yuddha Khanda" Canto 107 of Ramayana.
There are in total 124 names praising the Sun in the whole procedure. The names in verses 10 - 13 are given below:
AdityaSavitaSuryaKhagaPushan, Gabhastiman, Suvarnasadrisa, Bhanu, Hiranyaretas, Divakara, Haridasva, Sahasrarchish, Saptasapti, Marichiman, Timironmathana, Sambhu, Twashta, Martanda, Ansuman, Hiranyagarbha, Sisira, Tapana, BhaskaraRavi, Agnigarbha, Aditiputra, Sankha, Sisiranasana ".
The names in bold are the names used in the present day popular Surya Namaskar are present in these four verses.
In 15 - 20 verses, salutations to Sun are described. An example from the 15th verse is: "the resplendent among the splendid. Oh! God, appearing in twelve forms (in the shape of twelve months of the year) salutations to you".

English Publications[edit]

The existence of procedures of sun salutations for health in ancient India are not confined to Hindu texts and literature written by Hindu scholars. Early English publications record some of the ancient ways of sun salutation. In "A Catalogue raisonnée [sic] of oriental manuscripts".[4] (Year: 1860, Page 246) Rev. William Cooke Taylor, noted that a short book with 71 leaves with "Tricha calpa vidhi" from "Aditya Puranam" was preserved. He describes the vidhi as "Modes of rendering homage to Sun, with praise and spells; the object being health or delivery from disease". He further notes the presence of Arghya Pradana, Surya Stotaram, Aditya dvadasa namam - 12 names of the Sun according to the monthly signs of zodiac, Surya Narayana cavacham, Saurashtacshari mantram, and many other elaborate rituals as the part of the vidhi. In Page 148 of the same book he describes a shorter version called "Laghu tricha kalpa vidhi".
"Surya Namaskars: An Ancient Indian Exercise" by Apa Pant (son of HH Meherban Shrimant Raja BHAVAN RAO SHRINIVAS 'BALA SAHIB', Pant Pratinidhi of Aundh—see below)

Physical exercise[edit]

Most of the asanas in the procedure themselves have documented in old literature.
"Sashtang dandavat", which is the central asana of the surya namaskar, was followed from time immemorial in India as a form of showing respect and complete surrender to God. "Bhujangasana" was described as one of the 32 important asanas in "Gheranda Samhita" (dated around 1802 A.D.) which describes the yoga prevalent in north-east India.[5][6]"Sarpasana" (Bhujangasana), "Gajasana" (Adhomukh Swannasan), "Uttanasana" and series of postures done in tandem, similar to surya namaskar are all described in Sritattvanidhiwhich was written by the order of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1799–1868) to capture the Hindu knowledge of his time.[6]
The use of surya namaskar for physical exercise is also not modern. Bhagavat Simhaji on Page 61 in the book A Short History of Aryan medical science [7] published in 1896 says "There are various kinds of physical exercise indoors and outdoors. But some of the Hindoos set aside a portion of their daily worship for making salutations to the Sun by prostrations. This method of adoration affords them so much muscular activity that it takes to some extent the place of physical exercise".
Historically it is widely believed in the state of Maharashtra that Shivaji Maharaj, Sage Samarth Ramdas and the Marathas have performed surya namaskar as a physical exercise to develop able bodies.[8] This is not surprising[according to whom?] since 'vyayama' (physical exercise in Sanskrit) traditionally has been influenced by spirituality. Many physical practices have ingrained spiritual values in them. In addition spiritual training is considered as a part of physical training from ancient times in India.
Recent academic research details documentary evidence that physical journals in the early 20th century were full of the postural shapes that were very similar to Krishnamacharya'sasana system.[9] In particular, the flowing surya namaskar which later became the basis of Krishnamacharya's Mysore style, was not yet considered part of yogasana.[10][11]

Raja of Aundh[edit]

His Holiness Meherban Shrimant Raja BHAVAN RAO SHRINIVAS 'BALA SAHIB', Pant Pratinidhi of Aundh (1868–1951; Raja of Aundh 1909-1947)[12] occupies an important position in the history of surya namaskar. He helped in popularizing surya namaskar as a simple physical exercise for all round development of an individual. He introduced it in schools as a form of education and encouraged even the ordinary man to be physically fit by performing surya namaskar every day.[13] Some of the Western scholars take a narrow view of the word "origin" and question the ancient origins. They are of the view that an old manuscript with the exact sequence of the whole procedure needs to be present for it to be considered ancient and classify surya namaskar as a modern physical exercise invented by Raja of Aundh.[14][15] It has to be noted that Raja of Aundh, himself never claimed to have invented Surya Namaskar. Further he actually stressed on the ancient origins of this procedure.[13]

Glossary[edit]

Word by word translation of dhyana Mantra[edit]

Savitrumandala-Madhyavartee - He who lives in the centre of the solar orb.
Sarasijaasana Sannivishtah - Who sits in Padmaasana
Keyuravaan Makara Kundalavaan Kireetee Haaree - Who has the bracelets, the big ear-rings in the ear, the crown on the head and the pearl garland dangling on the breast.
Dhrita-Sankha-Chakrah - Holder of Conch and Chakra (discuss).
Hiranmayavapuh - Golden-hued body.
Narayanah - Narayana
Sadaa Dhyeyah - Always to be meditated.

Transliteration of the three ruchas[edit]

udhyannadya mitramaha ārohannuttarāṃ divam |
hṛdroghaṃ mamsūrya harimāṇaṃca nāśaya ||
śukeṣume harimāṇaṃ ropaṇākāsu dadhmasi |
atho hāridraveṣume harimāṇaṃ ni dadhmasi ||
udaghādayamādityo viśvena sahasā saha |
dviṣantaṃ mahyaṃ randhyan mo aham dviṣate radham ||

Translation of the three ruchas[edit]

Book – 1, HYMN L.
11 Rising this day, O rich in friends, ascending to the loftier heaven,
Surya remove my heart's disease, take from me this my yellow hue.
12 To parrots and to starlings let us give away my yellowness,
Or this my yellowness let us transfer to Haritala trees.
13 With all his conquering vigour this Aditya hath gone up on high,
Giving my foe into mine hand: let me not be my foeman's prey.

12 Balasahib's 'original' 1928 Suya Namaskar, sun salutation

The Ten Point Way to Health by Shrimant Balasahib Rajah of Aundh



Nice website about Aundh here

I'm pretty sure the princely state of Aundh neighbouring Mysore.
I came across reference to the Surya namaskara of Balasahib Rajah of Aundh again yesterday in Elsizabeth's book,

First There is a Mountain: A Yoga Romance [Hardcover]
Elizabeth Kadetsk.

HH Meherban Shrimant Raja BHAVAN RAO SHRINIVAS 'BALA SAHIB', Pant Pratinidhi of Aundh [1868-1951]
Seems the Rajah had tried to introduce the practice of the Sun Salutation into all his schools and promote it as a general way to health, there are descriptions of rows of young boys performing the Surya namaskara as if in a drill. This ties in with something  I was reading earlier in the week in the Mark Singleton Yoga Body book about there being a  'Surya namaskar a'  class introduced at the Mysore palace, separate to Krishnamacharya's asana class and supposedly not taught by him.

Krishnamacharya seems to have been a little suspicious of this practice, it was a criticism of his I believe about later Ashtanga, 'too many Surya namaskaras'. That said the Ten points to health  book also includes the chants to the different stages to the Surya namaskara and this was something he taught to Ramaswami and that he taught to us on the Vinyasa Krama TT course, although we were taught three accompanying mantra's.

The full booklet can be found here, look out for counted vinyasa, drishti, focus on breath, long inhalations and exhalations, breath retention, bandhas and a use of mantras.

The ten point way to health published 1928 (in English in 1938)

Or as a free to download pdf file below and over on the left of the blog along with the other free downloads

The Ten Point Way to Health by Shrimant Balasahib Rajah of Aundh pdf JM Dent Publishers

Some background to the book?

'...most Yoga students and teachers are not aware that the famous Surya Namaskar, and the variations out of the South Indian Schools of Hatha, never existed before the 20th century. In 1937 the Raja of Aundh was studying Law in London and attracted much attention by teaching a family system of exercises. This resulted in a London journalist publishing articles and ultimately a book. As a result, the Surya Namaskar rapid spread rapidly throughout the world, including India. Today, many in both East and West, believe this to be a traditional practice; it is not. No Brahman Hindu, reciting the sacred Gayatri, while facing the sun, has ever been taught to do Surya Namaskar. Surya Namaskar is a very modern innovation or invention in a long history of evolving Yoga practices'. from HERE

and here is the cover, the index, the diagram at the back showing the different stages and the chant.






So what to make of this? The publication of 1928 dates it to around the time Krishnamacharya 'left the mountains' (1922) and first went to teach  at the Mysore palace (he returned to Mysore in 1924 ), there is a two year period when he was traveling through India, giving demonstrations and becoming involved in debates etc. before returning to Mysore. The stages of the Surya Namaskar do seem to form the framework of the vinyasa on which his Asana are performed. Krishnamacharya's Yoga Makaranda was published in 1934 and the Yogasanagalu in 1941. Did Krishnamacharya teach Surya namaskara to the Rajah of Aundh in the early 1920's or was it the other way around. We find the basic structure of the surya namaskara in Krishnamacharya's Yoga Makaranda of 1934 and one can assume this is an approach that Krishnamacharya had been teaching for a number of years.

It does say on page 43 of the ten points to health booklet....

"We give the fundamentals to the age-old method of performing Surya namaskaras, and the one followed by our revered father, the late Rajah of Aundh. for fifty-fie years he did these surya namaskaras".

Which would take it back to around 1870-80


Patabhi Jois of course included the surya namaskar pretty much as above in his version of Ashtanga in Yoga Mala 1954 (which included a separate section devoted to Surya namaskar a)and even published his own separate booklet in 2005 which is available from KPJAYI below is the cover and what they have to say about it on the website.


"The Surya Namaskara form the foundation for the entire method of the practice of yoga – and, as we all know, if one’s foundation is firm, then whatever is supported by it will be stable as well. So, if the Surya Namaskara are first learned properly and their inner meaning grasped, then all the various asanas, pranayamas and the like that follow them will be useful and beneficial in their outcomes.

In creating this small booklet, it is Pattabhi Jois’s wish that all practitioners who undertake the practice of Surya Namaskara do so with a proper understanding of their inner significance and of their practical method, so that health, clarity of mind and spiritual elevation may be achieved".

Interestingly he states in the booklet that...
'... no asana practice is complete without sun worship. Without its focussing of mental energies, yoga practice amounts to little more than gymnastics and as such loses meaning and proves fruitless. indeed the surya Namaskara should never be mistaken for mere physical exercise-for something incidental, that is, that that simply precedes the asanas of yoga." p11 Surya namaskara


And finally this from Mark Singleton's response to Ramaswami's newsletter in an earlier post of mine


"What I am interested in is how innovators like the Raja of Aundh
revived suryanamaskar in the context of vyayama, and how it was
initially promoted as an Indian alternative to Sandow bodybuilding. I
am also interested in how (to Sri Yogendra's chagrin) it was
subsequently incorporated by others into physical culture-oriented
yoga practices.
You ask, "Are these physical drills, yoga exercises or devotional
practices? Which came first? God knows, Lord Ganesa knows". Well, the
answer is that it depends entirely on context. In modern times the
context can often be radically different. For example, into which
category should we place a mass drill-type practice of suryanamaskar
for children led by the Raja of Aundh circa 1935? Certainly he did not
categorize it as yoga himself. It would have looked to many like a
standard drill gymnastics of the time, and was to some extent
conceived by the Raja as a replacement for this. And yet he clearly
also recognized the "traditional" meaning of sun prostration." . Response to "Yoga Gymnastique

*****

13. More on the 'original' Sun salutation of 1928

Obviously it's disingenouous to talk about the 'original' sun salutaion, Man has been prostrating himself to the sun, no doubt, since the first dawn of awareness. Pragmatically though, we know what we're talking about  right, tracing the sun salutation, the surya namaskara, that so many of us  include in our yoga practice, back to it's earliest sources.

So, in yesterday's post it was 1928 and the publication of The Ten Point Way to Health by Shrimant Balasahib Rajah of Aundh


The full booklet can be found at the links below, look out for counted vinyasa, drishti, focus on breath, long inhalations and exhalations, breath retention, bandhas and a use of mantras.

The ten point way to health published 1928 (in English in 1938) online reader

Or as a free to download pdf file below and over on the left of the blog along with the other free downloads

The Ten Point Way to Health by Shrimant Balasahib Rajah of Aundh pdf JM Dent Publishers.

I mentioned too in yesterdays post, page 43 where we find
"We give the fundamentals to the age-old method of performing Surya namaskaras, and the one followed by our revered father, the late Rajah of Aundh. For fifty-five years he did these surya namaskaras".

We get more specifics on this in Chapter X. Evolution of Surya Namaskara

It was in 1909 that we first began to do Surya namaskaras in the old style. According to this the knees were not straightened while bending over, nor was the foot brought forward on a line with the palms, and it was not necessary to stand erect at the beginning of each namakara or to regulate the breathing in a way we have indicated".


Surely the old style here is describing an ancient protestration to the sun, the focus purely on the ritual rather than any health benefits.

1909 of course predates, by around fifteen years, Krishnamacharya passing through, on his way back to Mysore from the Himalayas, and any eliminates any thoughts of him having introd this practice to the Rajah but he may of course have been influenced himself in turn and come to incorporate the movements in his approach to asana. This of course is pure speculation.

And yet these seems to be a resistance to the stand alone Surya Namaskara's in Krishnamacharya's teaching. We don't find the Surya Namaskara in the Yoga Makaranda of 1934 and we know that the Maharaja of Mysore introduced a Surya namaskara class seperate from Krishnamacharya's asana class. This class was no doubt based on the model of that introduced by the Rajah of Aundh. Krishnamacharya did however teach the Surya Namaskara with mantra also mentioned in the Ten points to health booklet to Ramaswmai in the 1950's-80's. Perhaps Krishnamacharya was resistant to the idea of the Surya Namaskara being introduced purely as a form of exercise stripped of his spiritual aspect.

What we do find in Krishnamacharya's Yoga Makaranda however, are similar movements as in the Ten points to health Suryanamaskara booklet and with a similar focus on breath but employed to enter in and out of asana. Was this a concession to the Maharaja of Mysore or was this an element of the asana practice Krishnamacharya bought south with him 1924.

We do find Pattabhi Jois mentioning that he was drawn to Krishnamacharya jumping in and out of asana in the demonstration he came across in 1927, this surely is reference to the style of asana described in the Yoga Makaranda of 1934.
The Practice "sound familiar?"

I mentioned above to look out for counted vinyasa, drishti, focus on breath, long inhalations and exhalations, breath retention, bandhas and a use of mantras.

Now remember this is perhaps simplified for the English speaking readers but perhaps we can recognise some of the above...

Chapter IV Breath is life

There are three full breaths_three full inhalations, three holdings of breath, and three complete exhalations" p38

"Rhythmic breathing is one of the secrets of the wonderful power of the exercises to revitalise the body" p38-39

Without the breathing Surya namaskar a would lose half or more of their virtue" p 39

" Now try holding the breath for a few seconds" p40

"When after anything from three to sixty or more seconds you exhale, do so completely, making an aspirate sound such as huh at the end to ensure that the last particle of used air has been breathed out..."
p40

Richard freeman has been mentioning this last little puff of air in everyone of his pranayama lectures this month on Sounds True

"The best tune for your rhythmic breathing is seven-time. Count seven for each breath, making the temp quick at first, and later lengthening it. Fill your lungs in two counts, hold the breath for four, and empty them in one. We do not suggest that you always breath in seven-time. If you do so for a total of thirty minutes a day, it will be enough to tune up the rest of your breathing". p41

"The east and the west differ in their manner of exhalation, though this is not a very important distinction. We personally advocate strongly exhalation as well as inhalation through the nose only" p42.

The count
Speaks for itself

Bandhas
Not made explicit but we find much like this below throughout...

"Raise the chest and pull the abdomen in as far as possible" p44

In bending try and touch the knees with the forehead or nose. Squeezing in the abdomen will help to attain this position" p47

Drishti

"Turn your eyes upwards towards your waist" p47

"Without bending the arms drop to the right knee and lift the head as high as you can, looking upwards" p49


Alignment

"Stand so that a plummet line dropped from the top of your head should go through the shoulder, hip , knee and ankle. This is a stance taught by the ancient Yogis of India" p 44

This too reminds me of richard freeman's use of the plummet line, did that come from his Iyengar background, i also found reference to smiling while in a posture , another Freemanism.







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A Reminder

from Kalama sutra, translation from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi This blog included.

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" — then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' — then you should enter & remain in them. Buddha - Kalama Sutta
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